Twiglet: Abies (fir; family: Pinaceae)


A genus of conifer tree in wich the leaves are crowded on the twig, often approximately in two row; they are needle-like and single, leaving a round, flat scar when they fall, thus producing a small twig.

The female cones are borne erect; they shatter at maturity, but the woody axis persists.

Many fine ornamental species are now widely cultivated for their lofty, deeply pyramidal, monopodial crowns.

To grown, the species require a most climate and are sensitive to atmospheric pollution.

There is about 40-50 species, widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, especially on mountian/alpine habitats.

Source: Oxford Dictionary of Plant Sciences

Forests make heatwaves ‘initially warmer’


During heatwaves forests reduce their evaporation, causing the atmosphere to warm up even more, say researchers.

During extremely long periods of heat, however, this reduction enables the forests to continue their evaporation for longer, so the net effect is ultimately one of cooling in relation to the surroundings, explained a team of scientists led by Ryan Teuling from Wageningen University in the Netherlands.

Writing in the journal Nature Geoscience, Dr Teuling worked on the investigation in collaboration with climate researchers from a number of European countries.

The study was prompted by recent heatwaves in Europe, which had raised interest in questions about the influence of land use on temperatures and climate.

Up to now, scientists had assumed that a lack of precipitation during heatwaves automatically led to a reduction in evaporation.

That reduction was thought to be less for forests, because trees, with their deeper root systems, have more water available to them. Examination of the precise role of land use, however, has been largely neglected up to now.

The study found large differences in evaporation strategies during heat waves. Grasslands evaporate more at higher temperatures and stop only when no more water is available.

Forests, in contrast, respond to higher temperatures by evaporating less, which leaves more water at their disposal.

During brief heatwaves, therefore, the greatest warming is found above forests, but during prolonged heat waves the increased evaporation of grasslands ends up causing a shortage of water.

This can lead to exceptionally high temperatures, such as those measured in France in the summer of 2003.

This mechanism might also offer an explanation for the unusually high temperatures near Moscow this summer, the researchers suggest.

In these types of extreme situations, forests in fact have a cooling effect on the climate.

The research was done on the basis of observations made above forests and grasslands in Europe by an extensive network of flux towers. For areas without towers, satellite data were used.

Source: Wageningen University press release

Date: 06/09/2010

Illegal logging continues to plague Madagascar’s rainforest parks


Despite government assurances that it would crack down on the rosewood trade, illegal logging continues in Madagascar’s rainforest parks, according to new information provided by sources on the ground and reported in Wildmadagascar.com.

The sources report logging in three parks: Mananara, Makira, and Masoala. All three are known for their high levels of biodiversity, including endangered lemurs.

Rosewood logs are being transported to Tamatave (Toamasina), Madagascar’s main port, despite a national moratorium on logging and export of precious hardwoods. Most rosewood ends up going to China, where it is in high demand for furniture.

The Malagasy sources report that local law enforcement—the new Brigade Mixte Forestière established to reduce logging—is impeded the Forest Ministry, which has failed to grant them the right to use search warrants on private property.

The sources also claim that rosewood confiscated by authorities is being stolen from official stockpiles.

Illegal logging exploded last year in the aftermath of a military coup that displaced the democratically-elected, but increasingly autocratic president, Marc Ravalomanana.

National parks, especially in the North-East of the country, were ransacked by loggers employed by timber barons who traditionally capitalize on political instability or natural disasters to replenish timber stocks and traffic ill-gotten wood.

Madagascar is now ruled by a “transition authority” that has so far shown little inclination to hold free and fair elections and has been be slow to address the logging crisis despite pressure from the international community.

Source: Wildmadagascar.com

Date:06/09/2010

Twiglet: Abscission; abscisic acid


Topical for this time of year (in the northern hemisphere at least), abscission referes to the rejection of plant organs, such as leaves in the autumn.

This occurs at an abscission zone, where hydrolytic enzymes reduce cell adhension. The process can be promoted by abscisic acid and inhibited by respiratory poisons, and is controlled in nature by the proportions and gradients of auxin and ethylene. Other hormones may be involved.

Abscisic acid is a terpenoid compound that is one of the five major plant horones. Althought it is synthesised in the chloroplasts, it occurs throughout the plant body and is particularly concentrated in the leaves, fruits and seeds.

It has a powerful grown inhibiting properties generally and also promotes leaf abscission and the senescence of plants and/or their organs, and induces the closing of the stomata and dormancy in seeds and buds.

Its effect is antagonistic to the plant growth hormones, and it is thought to act by inhibiting the synthesis of protein and nucleic acids.

Source: Oxford Dictionary of Plant Sciences

China timber sector looks at tougher EU/US import rules


The China Timber and Wood Products Circulation Association (CTWPCA) is seeking to establish a body to help importers navigate new environmental regulations in the US and EU that restrict trade in illegally logged timber, reports the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO).

In a recent market report, ITTO said that Chinese importers fear failing to meet the new regulations that govern the sourcing of timber products.

The US’s Lacey Act and the EU’s FLEGT ruling put the burden of responsibility on importing companies, holding them to the environmental laws of producing countries.

Companies found to be sourcing illegally logged timber could be subject to fines or worse.

A company accused of using illicit rosewood from Madagascar, was the first company to be charged and investigated under the Lacey Act.

The legislation was amended in 2008 to include “anyone who imported, exported, transported, sold, received, acquired or purchased the wood products made from that illegal timber, who knew or should have known that the wood was illegal.” The firm’s case is pending.

According to ITTO, CTWPCA believes traders need “guidance and support” on the new international requirements.

The body would also set up a “responsible procurement system” for timber imports, seek to address corruption in the timber import and trade sector, and aim to help Chinese timber traders meet international standards.

China already has guidelines governing Chinese companies operating forest concessions overseas.

These compel companies to abide by local environmental laws and take measures to reduce pollution. However, some observers suggest that there is no indication that these mandatory rules are being enforced.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 02/09/2010

REDD+ could do more harm than good, forestry experts warn


As governments across Latin America prepare to implement a new financial mechanism aimed at mitigating climate change by curbing carbon emissions from the destruction of tropical forests, experts have warned against a “one-size-fits-all” approach.

Instead, they are calling for flexible, balanced solutions to the surrounding this new mechanism.

Among the experts’ main concerns are that the wealthy and powerful could capture many of the benefits, largely at the expense of rural communities, including indigenous groups.

Organised by Mexico’s National Forestry Commission and the Swiss government, with scientific support from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), a recent conference’s findings and recommendations will be feed into a UN Forum on Forests (UNFF) meeting scheduled to take place in early 2011, marking the launch of the International Year of Forests.

The Mexico gathering brought together scientists, as well as representatives of governments and non-government organisations, for discussions on governance, decentralisation and REDD+ in Latin America.

Under REDD+ (for reducing deforestation and forest degradation), industrialised countries will provide developing nations with sizeable sums of money in exchange for verifiable storage of carbon in forests, in addition to the conservation and sustainable management of forests.

Forest destruction currently accounts for up to 18% of annual global carbon emissions. Several Latin American countries, including Mexico, have taken the lead in designing REDD+ schemes and stand to benefit significantly.

“Good forest governance – involving transparent and inclusive relationships between governments, forests and the people who depend on them – is fundamental for ensuring that REDD+ helps forest-dependent communities move out of poverty, instead of fueling corruption and funding entrenched bureaucracies,” said Elena Petkova, a CIFOR scientist.

“REDD+ schemes could either flounder on governance failures or flourish under successful governance.”

The central aim of the conference in Oaxaca was to provide science-based advice on the design and implementation of REDD+ schemes, so these schemes can capture carbon and reduce emissions effectively, while at the same time generate significant benefits from sustainable forest management that are equitably shared.

“About 40 years of public sector investment in curbing deforestation, while producing many local successes, has fallen far short of its goal,” said another CIFOR scientist, Andrew Wardell, who was also attending the conference.

“REDD+ might be our last chance to save the world’s tropical forests. So, it’s extremely important to get it right in Latin America and elsewhere.

“This region holds nearly a quarter of the world’s forests, upon which millions of people depend, and over the last five years, it has accounted for 65% percent of global net forest loss.”

Source: CIFOR press release

Date: 03/09/2010

US wolf re-introduction still leaves aspens quaking


The re-introduction of wolves in a US National Park in the mid-1990s is not helping quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides) to become re-established, as many researchers hoped.

In a study published in the journal Ecology showed that the population of wolves in Yellowstone Park was not deterring elks from eating young trees and saplings.

It was assumed that the presence of wolves would create a “landscape of fear”, resulting in no-go areas for elks.

Researchers writing in the Ecological Society of America’s (ESA) journal said that the aspens were not regenerating well in the park as a result of the elk eating the young trees.

However, they added that the conventional wisdom suggested that as the wolves were predators of the elk, it was thought that the elk would eventually learn to avoid high-risk areas in which the wolves were found.

This would then allow plants in those areas – such as aspen – to grow big enough without being eaten and killed by the elk. And in the long-term, the thinking went, the habitat would be restored.

In this latest study, lead author Matthew Kauffman – a US Geological Survey scientist – suggested the findings showed that claims of an ecosystem-wide recovery of aspen were premature.

“This study not only confirms that elk are responsible for the decline of aspen in Yellowstone beginning in the 1890s, but also that none of the aspen groves studied after wolf restoration appear to be regenerating, even in areas risky to elk,” Dr Kauffman explained.

Because the “landscape of fear” idea did not appear to be benefiting aspen, the team concluded that if the Northern Range elk population did not continue to decline (their numbers are 40% of what they were before wolves), many of Yellowstone’s aspen stands were unlikely to recover.

“A landscape-level aspen recovery is likely only to occur if wolves, in combination with other predators and climate factors, further reduce the elk population,” observed Dr Kauffman.

The paper, Are wolves saving Yellowstone’s aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade, has been published online in Ecology. The authors of the paper are: Matthew Kauffman (USGS), Jedediah Brodie (University of Montana) and Erik Jules (Humboldt State University).

Source: ESA press release

Date: 01/09/2010

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