Dangerous climate change ‘to kill Amazon rainforest’


Global warming will wreck attempts to save the Amazon rainforest, reports the UK’s Guardian newspaper.

It says a study presented at a major climate science conference in Denmark has predicted that one-third of its trees will be killed by even modest temperature rises.

The research, by some of Britain’s leading experts on climate change, shows that even severe cuts in deforestation and carbon emissions will fail to save the emblematic South American jungle, the destruction of which has become a powerful symbol of human impact on the planet.

Up to 85% of the forest could be lost if spiralling greenhouse gas emissions are not brought under control, the experts said.

But even under the most optimistic climate change scenarios, the destruction of large parts of the forest is “irreversible”.

Vicky Pope, of the Met Office’s Hadley Centre, which carried out the study, said: “The impacts of climate change on the Amazon are much worse than we thought.

“As temperatures rise quickly over the coming century, the damage to the forest won’t be obvious straight away but we could be storing up trouble for the future.”

Tim Lenton, a climate expert at the University of East Anglia, called the study, unveiled at the University of Copenhagen gathering, a “bombshell”.

He said: “When I was young I thought chopping down the trees would destroy the forest, but now it seems that climate change will deliver the killer blow.”

The study, which has been submitted to the journal Nature Geoscience, used computer models to investigate how the Amazon would respond to future temperature rises.

It found that a 2C (3.6F) rise above pre-industrial levels, widely considered the best case global warming scenario and the target for ambitious international plans to curb emissions, would still see 20-40% of the Amazon die off within 100 years.

A 3C (5.4F) rise would see 75% of the forest destroyed by drought over the following century, while a 4C (7.2F) rise would kill 85%.

“The forest as we know it would effectively be gone,” Dr Pope said.

Experts had previously predicted that global warming could cause significant “die-back” of the Amazon.

The new research is the first to quantify the long-term effect.

Source: Guardian newspaper

Date: 12/03/2009

Advertisements

Norway to pay Guyana to protect rainforests


Norway will provide financial support for Guyana’s ambitious plan to conserve its rainforests, reports Mongabay.com.

During a meeting in Oslo, Guyana President Bharrat Jagdeo and Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg signedan agreement to establish a partnership to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).

It is also understood that the leaders will also push for the incorporation of a REDD mechanism that includes low deforestation countries like Guyana in a post-2012 climate change agreement.

“We agreed that if the world is to prevent irreversible climate change, it is essential that greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are drastically reduced,” the men said in a statement.

It continued: “To achieve this vital objective, they agreed that determined and concerted action is needed.

“They emphasised that efforts under the UNFCCC towards REDD must be properly designed to ensure that deforestation is significantly reduced in countries where it is already occurring, and avoided in countries where deforestation rates are still low.”

Mr Stoltenberg added that REDD “would provide funding for provide funding for a shift away from forest-dependent employment and income generation, towards support for the creation of low carbon development and low deforestation economies”.

Norway’s financial commitment was not specified, although the statement noted that the Scandinavian country was “prepared to provide performance-based, substantial and sustained compensation for the progress Guyana makes in limiting emissions from deforestation at low levels and further decreasing forest degradation”.

The agreement includes the establishment of a “reputable international organisation” to distribute funds for low-carbon development based on Guyana’s performance.

President Jagdeo welcomed the deal: “The developing and the developed countries must work together to address global warming. I commend the government of Norway for showing leadership through its climate and forest initiative.”

Norway has pledged up to $430 million per year to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.

To date, it has already committed up to $1bn to Brazil’s Sustainable Amazon Fund, provided the South American country meet targets for reducing deforestation.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 05/02/2009

Tropical tree offers mosquito repellent hope


Isolongifolenone, a natural compound found in the Tauroniro tree (Humiria balsamifera) of South America, has been identified as an effective deterrent of mosquitoes and ticks, reports Mongabay.com

It quotes researchers writing in the Journal of Medical Entomology, who said that derivatives of the compound have long been used as fragrances in cosmetics, perfumes, deodorants, and paper products.

However, they added, new processing methods could make it as inexpensive to produce as DEET – a potent and widely available synthetic insect repellent that works by blocking the aroma of human sweat.

The authors, led by Aijun Zhang of the US Department of Agriculture’s Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, found that isolongifolenone deters the biting of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi “more effectively than the widely used synthetic chemical repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET) in laboratory bioassays”, and repels blacklegged ticks and lone star ticks “as effectively as DEET”.

“Isolongifolenone is easily synthesized from inexpensive turpentine oil feedstock,” the authors wrote.

“We are therefore confident that the compound has significant potential as an inexpensive and safe repellent for protection of large human populations against blood-feeding arthropods.”

Tauroniro, whose common names include Bastard bulletwood, Oloroso, Couramira, or Turanira, is found in marshy forests in the Guianas, Colombia, Venezuela, and the Brazilian Amazon, according to the US Forest Service.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 05/02/2009

Ranching ‘biggest driver of deforestation’ in Brazil


Cattle ranching is the biggest driver of deforestation in Brazil, says Greenpeace.

In evidence presented at the World Social Forum, hosted by Belem in the heart of the Amazon, the environmental group said it showed that cattle ranching was the biggest driver of Amazon deforestation.

Greenpeace Brazil has produced a series of maps which it said showed the links between cattle ranching and tree felling in the highest resolution to date.

The details have been released as part of the organisation’s Save the Planet – Now tour.

Greenpeace lists the South America nation as the world’s fourth biggest polluter, with 75% of its emissions stemming from deforestation.

The Brazilian government has pledged to tackle destruction of the Amazon as part of its climate commitments. However, green campaigners say plans to expand its cattle industry contradict these.

Internationally, tropical deforestation is responsible for a fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than the global transport sector.

Source: Greenpeace International

Date: 29/01/2009

Canopy penetrating system boosts forest carbon monitoring


A tool for monitoring tropical deforestation has gotten a boost from the one of the world’s largest supporters of Amazon conservation, reports Mongabay.com.

The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation has awarded a $1.6m grant to the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology to expand and improve its tropical forest monitoring tool known as the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System Lite (CLASLite).

The Stanford University-based group says CLASLite “will rapidly advance deforestation and degradation mapping in Latin America, and will help rainforest nations better monitor their changing carbon budgets.”

The technology will also prove to be useful when the REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) mechanism, currently under negotiation at international climate talks, comes online.

“About 20% of global greenhouse gas emissions come from deforestation and degradation of tropical forests,” said Greg Asner, project leader for CLASLite.

“Much of it occurs in developing nations, where monitoring capabilities are often unavailable to governments and NGOs.

“This grant allows us to improve and expand CLASLite, and to train many people from tropical forest nations so that they can determine where and when forest losses are occurring.

“Perhaps most importantly,” he added, “rainforest nations will be able to better determine how much CO2 comes from deforestation and degradation. (This) information has been very scarce in the past.

CLASLite is capable of penetrating the upper levels of the rainforest canopy and detecting small differences in vegetation patterns at a scale of about 100 feet (30 metres), producing forest maps from old and new data from Landsat satellites, as well as several other Nasa sensors in Earth orbit.

“The technology can sense changes resulting from selective logging and small surface fires that burn below the forest canopy.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 04/12/2008

%d bloggers like this: