A study has shown that certain farming methods can help sustain the biodiversity of tropical forests, reports BBC News’ environment reporter Mark Kinver.
Researchers found that an areca nut plantation in south-west India supported 90% of the bird species found in surrounding native forests.
The low-impact agriculture system has been used for more than 2,000 years and should be considered as a new option for conservation efforts, they added.
The findings appear in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The team of scientists from the US and India chose the site on the coastal fringes of the Western Ghat mountain range because it met a number of attributes the study required:
- a long history of continuous agricultural production
- intense human pressure
- extensive natural areas still remaining
The landscape consisted of a mixture of intact forest, “production forest” (where non-timber products, such as leaves, were allowed to be removed) and areas of cash crops, primarily areca nut palms (Areca catechu).
“We found a total of 51 forest (bird) species in this study system,” the researchers wrote.
“These species were broadly distributed across the landscape, with 46 (90%) found outside of the intact forest.
“Within areca nut plantations, we recorded threatened forest species, such as the great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) and the Malabar grey hornbill (Ocyceros griseus).”
The team said the combination of the height of the areca nut palms (Areca catechu) and the plantations’ close proximity to the intact forest created the necessary ecological conditions to support forest bird species.
They added that data showed the distribution of species in the area had been relatively stable for more than 2,000 years, before the first farmers cultivated the area.
As well as having a high ecological value, the plantations were also economically productive.
The areca nut is consumed by about 10% of the world’s population, predominantly Asian communities.
The shade provided by the palms’ canopy also created the conditions that allowed farmers to grow other high-value crops, such as pepper, vanilla and bananas.
Rather than expanding the plantations, the farmers relied upon the leaf litter from the surrounding production forests to produce mulch for their crops, rather than using costly fertilisers.
The researchers also said alternative crops that could be grown in the wet lowlands, such as rice, yielded lower returns both economically and ecologically.
Lead author Jai Ranganathan, from the US National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), said the findings provided another option for conservationists to consider.
“It identifies another tool that can be used by conservationists,” he told BBC News.
“If it is not possible to make places completely protected areas then they can look at whether a system like this will help support the rich biodiversity.”
Dr Ranganathan said that he intended to look for further examples of established agriculture and cultivation practises in the region that provided habitats that supported a high level of biodiversity.
Source: BBC News website
Filed under: conservation, research | Tagged: areca nut, bananas, cash crops, forest species, hornbills, jai ranganathan, native forests, pepper, pnas, production forest, research, tropical forests, vanilla, western ghat mountains |