REDD+ could do more harm than good, forestry experts warn


As governments across Latin America prepare to implement a new financial mechanism aimed at mitigating climate change by curbing carbon emissions from the destruction of tropical forests, experts have warned against a “one-size-fits-all” approach.

Instead, they are calling for flexible, balanced solutions to the surrounding this new mechanism.

Among the experts’ main concerns are that the wealthy and powerful could capture many of the benefits, largely at the expense of rural communities, including indigenous groups.

Organised by Mexico’s National Forestry Commission and the Swiss government, with scientific support from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), a recent conference’s findings and recommendations will be feed into a UN Forum on Forests (UNFF) meeting scheduled to take place in early 2011, marking the launch of the International Year of Forests.

The Mexico gathering brought together scientists, as well as representatives of governments and non-government organisations, for discussions on governance, decentralisation and REDD+ in Latin America.

Under REDD+ (for reducing deforestation and forest degradation), industrialised countries will provide developing nations with sizeable sums of money in exchange for verifiable storage of carbon in forests, in addition to the conservation and sustainable management of forests.

Forest destruction currently accounts for up to 18% of annual global carbon emissions. Several Latin American countries, including Mexico, have taken the lead in designing REDD+ schemes and stand to benefit significantly.

“Good forest governance – involving transparent and inclusive relationships between governments, forests and the people who depend on them – is fundamental for ensuring that REDD+ helps forest-dependent communities move out of poverty, instead of fueling corruption and funding entrenched bureaucracies,” said Elena Petkova, a CIFOR scientist.

“REDD+ schemes could either flounder on governance failures or flourish under successful governance.”

The central aim of the conference in Oaxaca was to provide science-based advice on the design and implementation of REDD+ schemes, so these schemes can capture carbon and reduce emissions effectively, while at the same time generate significant benefits from sustainable forest management that are equitably shared.

“About 40 years of public sector investment in curbing deforestation, while producing many local successes, has fallen far short of its goal,” said another CIFOR scientist, Andrew Wardell, who was also attending the conference.

“REDD+ might be our last chance to save the world’s tropical forests. So, it’s extremely important to get it right in Latin America and elsewhere.

“This region holds nearly a quarter of the world’s forests, upon which millions of people depend, and over the last five years, it has accounted for 65% percent of global net forest loss.”

Source: CIFOR press release

Date: 03/09/2010

Africa’s urban trees are casualties of overcrowded cities


It is not only the rural regions in developing nations that are losing tree cover.

In an article published by the Ugandan website, New Vision, environmental journalist Ebenezer Bifubyeka highlights the issue of urban trees being felled.

The reason? Apparently, it is because of the rising population in cities, which is increasing the demand for urban open spaces to be converted into housing.

In his article, reproduced below, he highlights why authorities’ decisions to sacrifice the green urban spaces are is not without consequence:

On January 2, The New Vision published an article quoting the director of Natural Resources in the National Forestry Authority, Hudson Andura, as saying:

“Fifteen urban forest reserves are to be degazzated to cater for the growing population and development in 15 towns countrywide.”

Do we ever ask ourselves why trees stand side by side with skyscrapers in cities within developed countries? The reason is to mitigate city noise and absorb pollutant gases. Trees reduce on noise and absorb toxic gases.

The move by the National Forest Authority to degazzate forest reserves in 15 towns is not only a miscalculation but also a disastrous move. It is in urban centres that greenhouse gases are most emitted from factories and trees are the immediate reducers of such pollutant gases.

Is anybody bothered about the loss of national tree cover from 28% in 1988 to 13% by 2008? The loss of water catchment areas has led to poor and filthy water quality, thus the subsequent deaths of fish.

Besides, ornamental and ambient roles, trees in urban compounds, streets, recreational centres and hospitals keep the cycle of air flow fresh. In public hospitals like Mbarara Hospital, there used to be enough shed trees purposely to reduce noise of vehicles for the sick. It is unfortunate that these trees are being felled.

Trees reflect noise upwards in the atmosphere, according to Jeconious Musingwire, the western regional environment awareness officer.

As Uganda moves towards development circles, we have started going more brown (non-green environment). Despite pressure from investors and politicians to develop urban areas, development should be in harmony with conservation. Otherwise, we shall head for desertification and famine.

The escalating global warming – evidenced by climate change – warns us to stop further degradation of other green belts such as swamps, parks, green grass and forests.

In this regard I implore the Government to take environment concerns seriously and discourage cementing pavements and compounds. The green grasses are vital, for they ease the percolation of water into the soil.

Source: New Vision website

Date: 14/01/2009

China outlines tree planting plans for 2009


China’s Vice Prime Minister Hui Liangyu has urged government departments and the public to focus on the environment, and continue to plant trees, the China Daily website reports.

In 2008, China’s forest cover increased by 4.77 million hectares, Mr Hui told a conference attended by the country’s central and local forestry administration heads.

In addition, output of the country’s forestry sector reached 1.33 trillion yuan ($194 billion), an increase of just over 6% from the previous 12 months.

Forestry import and export volume was also expected to surpass $70 billion in 2008.

During 2009, China plans to plant 5.48 million hectares of trees, of which volunteers will plant about 2.5 billion trees.

The State Forestry Administration head, Jia Zhibang, also said at the conference that authorities will add more forestry jobs and increase forestry farmers’ income.

China’s top legislative body, the National People’s Congress (NPC), passed a resolution in 1981 making it a duty of all citizens older than 11 to plant trees annually.

The tree-planting drive is part of a campaign to boost green coverage to 20% of the country by 2010.

Source: China Daily

Date: 12/01/2009

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