Deadly oak disease hits Welsh private woodland


An outbreak of the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, otherwise known as sudden oak death, has been discovered for the first time in Wales on trees in a privately-owned woodland, reports the Forestry Commission Wales.

Staff from Forestry Commission Wales and the Food & Environment Research Agency (Fera) have visited the owner of the woodland in Denbighshire and a notice has been served to fell the infected Japanese larch trees. Only a small number of trees are infected, and the owner will use the timber on site.

Sudden oak death is a fungus pathogen that kills many of the trees that it infects. It was first found on Japanese larch trees in Wales in June this year in public woodlands  near Port Talbot, near Bridgend.

The outbreak in South Wales was the first time P. ramorum has been encountered on larch elsewhere in Great Britain since it was first discovered on larch in South-West England in 2009.

The woodland owner, Wendy Charles-Warner, contacted Take Cover, to say: “We feel rather aggrieved at the tone of the [Forestry Commission] press releases stating that we have been served with enforcement notices as if we were responsible for this outbreak and somehow in the wrong.

“We could take no steps to prevent this disease which is mainly airborne, have done nothing wrong and have at every point done everything we can to assist the forestry commission.”

A motor rally set to attract thousands of spectators to South Wales in July was postponed as a result of an ou6tbreak of the tree disease.

The route of the Swansea Bay Rally ran through forests that had been hit by the infection.

Richard Siddons from the Forestry Commission Wales said the organisation was “determined to minimise the impacts of this serious tree disease on woodlands, and the support of woodland owners in looking out for early signs of P. ramorum infection will play a key part in achieving that”.

It seems as if the warm but wet summer has been a key driver in the development of tree pathogens, with a number of cases making the headlines.

In April, a group of woodland experts expressed their fears for the future of British native oaks in light of the emergence of a disease called Acute Oak Decline, a bacterial infection that, they warned, could be as devastating for the English Landscape as Dutch elm disease in the 1970s.

They called for much more financial support from the UK government to help tackle the problem through research and land management measures.

In July, the Forestry Commission announced a £600,000 support package for woodland owners in South-West England and Wales to help tackle the outbreak of P. ramorum infection on larch trees. The package is part of Defra’s £25 million, five-year Phytophthora management programme.

Forestry Commission Wales is developing a complementary programme of support for private woodland owners who have P. ramorum confirmed on their land. Details of this support will be announced in September.

Ms Charles-Warner, in her comment to the story on this blog (see below for her full response), added: “

The ‘package of assistance’ that the Commission have announced is £300 per hectare, which we are not receiving or going to receive.

“If you have knowledge of tree felling you will appreciate that in a situation where stringent biosecurity measures have to be used and the trees have to be felled and brashed by hand that is a paltry sum, even in the highly unlikely event that you receive it.

She went on to say that she was “deeply concerned” about the situation: “If the Commission wishes landowners to report Phytopthora Ramorum and control it, in order to protect commercial forestry, then realistic support needs to be in place.

“Many landowners faced with a the prospect of funding felling and site clearance work themselves with the attendant stress and unpleasantness, are likely to ignore the disease and not report it.”

More information about sudden oak death can be found on the Forestry Commission’s website at www.forestry.gov.uk/pramorum.

To find out more about the support fund or to report suspected P. ramorum infection in their trees, woodland owners should contact Forestry Commission Wales’s Grants & Regulations Office on tel: 0300 068 0300 or email: bww.ts@forestry.gsi.gov.uk.

Source: Forestry Commission Wales press release

Date: 25/08/2010

UK elms – ‘not out of the woods yet’


Colin Tudge, the author of The Secret Life of Trees, is invited by the UK’s Telegraph newspaper to give his reaction to efforts to breed a Dutch elm disease-resistant species.

Library image from Take CoverIt’s an interesting read as he gives his reaction to this battle with nature, so here it is:

Could the English elm, so sadly laid low by Dutch elm disease, make a comeback? Paul King, who breeds trees at Raine in Essex, is on the case. Nearly 25 years ago he acquired cuttings from a few mature trees. He has now multiplied the tissues to produce a whole new generation of young elms that seem to be resistant (and are on sale for £120 apiece). Scientists at the Forestry Commission’s research centre in Surrey welcome his initiative – they are on the case, too – but are cautious. Resistance, they point out, is a tricky business.

The English elm, Ulmus procera, is probably not a “true” native – Britain has only 39 “truly” native trees – and was most likely introduced by Neolithic farmers from south-east Europe, via Spain. But it is an honorary citizen, treasured for its usefulness and its looks, favourite of landscape painters, notably of Constable; a tree of open woodland but just as happy in hedgerows where, if it was left alone, it flourished by the tens of millions. In the West Country it was known as “the Wiltshire weed”.

The first sign of trouble came in 1910 when the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi, a distant and degenerate cousin of the truffle, started killing trees in mainland Europe. It acquired its name, Dutch elm disease, in 1921 because it was first properly researched in Holland. It arrived in Britain by 1927 and looked very nasty. Happily, the disease died down by the Forties, after killing 10 to 40 per cent of our elms. Dr Tom Pearce of the Forestry Commission predicted, in 1960, that such a thing should not happen again – unless, he added, “the fungus completely changes its present trend of behaviour”.

Which it duly did. A new, closely related species of Ophiostoma appeared in North America – Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. It arrived in Britain in 1967 on imported logs, and throughout the Seventies and into the Eighties it killed about 25 million out of about 30 million elms, including most of the particular English species, Ulmus procera.

Dutch elm disease has all the biological attributes needed to be thoroughly nasty. It is one of the many “wilt diseases” of trees, which spread through the vessels of the xylem and block them. The spores are carried passively with wonderful efficiency in the sap, through the whole tree, and spread via the roots of separate trees that are often joined underground. The spores don’t live long once the tree has died and so should die out as their host succumbs – but they have a trump card: they are carried from tree to tree and from forest to forest by flying bark beetles of the genus Scolytus.

There is some innate resistance among the world’s many species of elm. The Ophiostoma fungus probably arose in Asia, so the Asian elms have evolved in its presence – and have developed considerable resistance. Breeding programmes are afoot in Europe to introduce genes from Asian species into European types by various means – and may yet succeed. Meanwhile, as Paul King has found, even within susceptible species, such as Ulmus procera, there will usually be some resistant strains. If they can be bred, perhaps we will have a new resistant strain.

So why the caution? Well, for one thing, it depends what the tree is really resistant to: the fungus or its insect vector? Paul King’s new trees are probably not resistant to the fungus itself, but are simply less palatable to the beetle. Of course, the fungus can’t usually infest the tree without the beetles – but it surely would be better to be specifically equipped with genes that would protect it even if beetles did get in.

The sad tale of Britain’s elms parallels that of the American chestnut, Castanea dentata – with some intriguing contrasts. For the American Indians and for the first immigrant Europeans, the American chestnut was a wonder tree. Its nuts were a food staple – and supported 40 million wild turkeys for good measure – and its trunks provided timber. There were so many that a squirrel could travel from chestnut to chestnut from Maine to Georgia without setting foot on the ground, or so the story went.

But the overconfident forestry “improvers” of the 19th century were still not content. They began to import Asian species with bigger nuts, to crossbreed. Inevitably, the newcomers came with their own diseases. And the American chestnuts, beset by novel pathogens, succumbed. By the end of the Twenties, the American chestnut, once perhaps the commonest North American broadleaf, was all but gone.

Again, through too much zeal, the Americans felled great swathes of chestnuts to create a firewall against the spread of infection. This failed to contain the disease – but it did, so some biologists suggest, remove the myriad genetic variations from among the wild trees, which might have included some that would have conferred resistance.

By leaving our own beleaguered elms to live on in the hedges, and nurturing the few survivors, as Paul King and others have been doing, we may avoid that final fate. (In truth, the American chestnut might not quite be dead. At least, George W Bush planted one outside the White House on Arbor Day in 2005 – but it is a hybrid: 15 per cent of its genes are from resistant Asian species. It is a sad relic, like an exhumed dodo).

Overall, the message is mixed. We could see the heroic efforts of a few growers and scientists as a triumph of human ingenuity over natural adversity – the continuing tale of “man’s conquest of nature”. Or we could see this endeavour as a desperate, last-ditch attempt to ward off the consequences of our own folly. For these are tales of hubris. We thought we could do what we liked in the name of commerce. But actually, life is more complicated than we ever supposed – and in the end, it is beyond our ken. Cause and effect relationships in nature are non-linear, which means it is intrinsically impossible to predict the outcome, beyond saying it won’t be good.

Source: Telegraph newspaper

Date: 09/06/2010

Forest Research draws up canker plan


Forest Research is to develop guidance on managing and drawing up controlling strategies for the bleeding canker tree blight, reports Horticulture Week.

“This disease has rapidly become widespread throughout Britain over the past five years,” said a representative for the research arm of the Forestry Commission.

Bleeding canker of horse chestnut was caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi (Psa), but until recently it had only been reported in India in 1980, he said.

“It has now proved to be highly mobile and exceptionally virulent to European horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum.”

Researchers were looking to provide an accurate diagnosis of the pathogen and underpin management strategies to combat the disease.

“A technique called real-time polymerase chain reaction has been developed and is being used to detect the levels of Psa on infected trees and their surroundings.”

Previously little was known about what natural resistance horse chestnut populations may have had to Psa.

“But evidence indicates that even in heavily affected locations some trees remain healthy and symptom-free.

“Disease-free horse chestnuts have been propagated and will be tested for disease resistance in inoculation trials and compared against other disease-prone individuals.

“This research will ultimately guide management and mitigation strategies. Molecular techniques developed will also be applicable to the study of other important tree diseases.”

Source: Horticulture Week

Date: 07/05/2009

Planting trees amid chaos of war


In the Tree Garden of Kilravock Castle is what looks like a giant octopus, says Steven McKenzie, a reporter for the BBC News website.

Called a layering beech, its limbs snake out from a sturdy trunk and bend to the ground where they have taken root before twisting skywards.

More than 300-years-old, it is classed as “extremely rare” in the Forestry Commission‘s list of Heritage Trees.

It would have been relatively young at the time Bonnie Prince Charlie visited the castle in the days before the Battle of Culloden.

The castle and its grounds lie a few miles east of Culloden Moor.

In a bizarre twist, Hugh Rose, the 17th Baron of Kilravock, played host to the warring cousins Charles Edward Stuart – Bonnie Prince Charlie – and the Duke of Cumberland in the days before the Battle of Culloden.

According to the Genealogical Deduction of the Family of Rose of Kilravock by Rev Hugh Rose, a book later updated by historians Lachlan Shaw and Cosmo Innes, the Young Pretender stopped at the castle as his forces massed in the surrounding countryside.

The baron, who is thought to have had no role in the later fighting, played the prince’s favourite Italian minuet on a violin before showing him his tree planting operations.

Bonnie Prince Charlie was said to have remarked: “How happy are you, Mr Rose, who can enjoy these peaceful occupations when the country round is so disturbed.”

The following day – 15 April – the Duke of Cumberland headed for the castle, according to the genealogical deduction.

The book goes on to tell how the baron feared reprisals for hosting the Jacobite figurehead, but was told by the duke he could not have refused hospitality and had no choice but to treat him like a prince.

Kilravock Wood also played a part in the downfall of the Jacobite night march, according to historian Christopher Duffy’s recent book The ’45.

Soldiers were delayed as they negotiated a breach in a wall around the woodland and elements became lost among the trees.

Nicole Deufel, learning manager at the National Trust for Scotland’s Culloden Battlefield Visitor Centre, said the night march was recognised as one of many factors influencing the outcome of the Battle of Culloden.

She said: “The main problem was that the men were exhausted even before they set off on the night march. Some drifted away looking for food and sleep.

“The story goes that, on their return, Prince Charles only slept for an hour and there was just one biscuit per man for food.”

On whether the march could have succeeded, she said: “It’s hard to say. There probably would have been another battle after this.

“A successful night march would not have prevented another battle in the future, but there may not have been a Battle of Culloden.”

Source: BBC News website

Date: 20/03/2009

Welsh woodlands to fight climate change


Climate change experts from across Europe will be seeing how the Welsh woodlands are already helping to alleviate the effects of climate change, says a press release from the UK Forestry Commission.

Researchers in Wales are putting in place exciting new ways in which the forests can help prevent flooding as well as locking away millions of tons of carbon dioxide.

Leading members of the new FUTUREforest project will be taken on a fact-finding tour of south Wales on 26-27 March, 2009.

The mission is part of the project’s remit to share experiences and new methods of environmental management to prepare the forests of Europe for climate change.

Specialists from the other six partner regions – Auvergne, France (biodiversity); Brandenburg, Germany (knowledge transfer); Bulgaria (soil protection); Catalonia (natural risks); Latvia (timber production); Slovakia (carbon sequestration) will see some of the effects of climate change on Welsh forests – and some of the solutions in and around Abergavenny.

They will see how woody debris dams, new woodland creation and other flood risk management techniques in the uplands can help to prevent the kind of flooding that has caused millions of pounds worth of damage across Wales.

The 30 strong delegation will be staying at The Hill Education & Conference Centre, Abergavenny, and visiting Forestry Commission Wales woodland sites at Mynydd Du, Usk College and the Woodland Trust’s Great Triley Wood.

“We have already begun to discover much about the way the woodlands of Europe can help us to combat climate change,” said Mike Over, Project Manager of the FUTUREforest project in Wales.

“We hope that experts from our partner regions discover that in Wales we have made some really exciting new discoveries that can help them back in their own countries.”

Source: Forestry Commission press release

Date: 19/03/2009

Bleeding cankers continues to take its toll


The avenue of 43 horse chestnut trees at Barrington Court, near Ilminster, in Somerset is being cut down and replaced with a variety of oak, the Telegraph reports.

The National Trust decided the trees had do go for safety reasons, following an infection of bleeding canker that causes the trees to lose bark and branches and eventually die.

The Trust has already had to cull a number of other horse chestnuts at properties around the country, with 28 trees recently chopped down in Avebury, Wiltshire.

Home-owners around the country have also had to cut down horse chestnuts because of the disease, which the Forestry Commission say has killed 3,000 tree in recent years.

The disease is spread by spores in the ground and can cause the tree to bleed a reddish brown liquid. It can be controlled by cutting out infected areas but will eventually kill the tree.

Christine Brain, head gardener at Barrington Court, said: “Bleeding canker is rife in England’s horse chestnuts.

“It kills the tree from the inside out, and while doing so makes it susceptible to other infections which hasten the trees death.

“We’ve been maintaining the trees over the last few years in an effort to extend their life and keep the disease as controlled as possible, but removal is now our only sensible option.”

Horticulturalists have warned that conker trees are in danger of dying out in Britain unless more is done to control the disease.

The call comes as the UK government announced a £25m package to curb the spread of sudden oak death through woodlands in England, Wales and Scotland.

Source: Telegraph newspaper

Date: 03/03/2009


Twiglet: Trees and roots


  • First thing to emerge from a seed is the embryonic root – the radicle.
  • In most plants, this primary root will develop secondary or lateral roots that grow out away from the main root as the plant grows.
  • The growth of any root is dependent on a small ball of dividing cells just behind the root tip. This collection of cells is called a meristem; it generates new cells to extend the root and form new root tissue (such as the xylem and phloem – the conducting tissues).
  • A long tap root may develop in suitable soils, whilst, in sandy ot peaty soils, the lateral roots may dominate.
  • Studies indicate the dominance of the young tap root is often lost quite early in development in many tree species.
  • The deepest root systems are probably found on desert plants.
  • Tree roots do not generally occur too deep in the soil, with the majority of roots found in the top one to two metres.
  • Trees tend to have shallow but extensive root systems.
  • The spread of the lateral roots can be as great as the spread of the canopy or crown, even further in some cases.
  • One study showed that the root spread of poplars was three times the crown radius. This type of root system is sometimes referred to as an extensive system.
  • An intensive root system is one that is confined to a smaller volume of soil, relying on shorter lateral that have numerous fine endings. This system is seen in beech (Fagus sylvatica), which was one of the species that suffered more than most in the drought of 1976.
  • The survey of trees blown over in the October 1987 Great Storm showed that only 2-3% had distinct tap roots.
  • Oak, pine and silver fir are among the species with persistent tap roots.
  • Other species have what are known as “heart root systems”, where larger and smaller roots penetrate the soil diagonally from the main trunk. Trees such as larch, lime and birch can fall into this category.
  • A surface root system is one where the roots tend to run horizontally just below the soil surface, with a few roots going deeper and vertically. Ash, aspen and Norway spruce are examples of trees with these kinds of roots.
  • The root system depends upon the local geology, soil type, climate, drainage… so, if a local area is water logged, this will limit the gas exchange which in turn will affect the amount of oxygen the roots can get for respiration (which generates the energy needed for growth and the absorption of minerals).
  • When oxygen levels in the soil falls, root growth is reduced or stops completely — the availability of oxygen can also be reduced by the compaction of the soil.

Source: Woodland Trust

UK to set tougher timber measures


From the beginning of April, only certified timber and timber products will be able to be used on UK government properties and projects, according to a press release from the UK Forestry Commission.

The material will have to originate either from independently verified legal and sustainable sources or from a licensed Forest Law Enforcement, Governance & Trade (FLEGT) partner.

The change will initially apply to England, Great Britain and UK departments and their executive agencies and non-departmental public bodies.

It is anticipated that the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland will follow suit in the near future.

Other public bodies, including local authorities, will be encouraged to follow the government’s lead.

The Forestry Commission says the new policy is designed to combat illegal and unsustainable logging.

It is described as a key element in the effort to help reduce and mitigate climate change by tackling deforestation, which is a threat to societies and the environment around the world.

The UK is a major importer of timber, and the government is at the forefront of global efforts to encourage legal and sustainable management of the world’s forests.

Under the new guidelines, government buyers will have to request evidence from contractors and suppliers that the wood products they propose to supply comply with the policy.

This evidence can take two forms:

Category A – independent certification of the timber and timber products by any of the forest certification schemes that meet the policy requirements, such as those endorsed by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (PEFC).

Category B – includes alternative documentary evidence that the source forest is known and that it is legally and sustainably managed.

Defra, the Government department with lead responsibility for sustainable timber procurement, has established the Central Point of Expertise on Timber (CPET) to provide training and a free support helpline to public-sector buying agencies and their timber suppliers.

Official figures suggest that about 23% of the timber sold in the UK is sold to government or public bodies.

The Forestry Commission estimates that 80% all timber produced in the UK is certified, including two-thirds of private-sector production, therefore meeting the criteria for Category A timber.

As for Category B, the benchmark for sustainable forest management in the UK is the UK Forestry Standard.

The Forestry Commission and Northern Ireland Forest Service are currently revising the Standard to bring it up-to-date and ensure it is consistent with international criteria.

When this process is completed, compliance with the revised Standard should provide a sound basis for demonstrating sustainable management under CPET Category B.

In the interim, the Commission and Forest Service are working closely with Defra to establish an appropriate protocol to enable all woodland owners to continue to meet the Government’s new procurement criteria from 1st April 2009.

Source: Forestry Commission press release

Date:  02/02/2009

Twiglet: UK woodlands and forests


The social and environmental value of woodlands and forests in the UK is estimated to be in the region of £1bn, states a postnote from the UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology.

Once, most of the UK was covered in woodland but the cover was gradually depleted as the demand for timber, fuel and agriculture grew.

By the beginning of the 20th Century, woodlands made up about 5% of the mainland.

Following the sharp increase in demand for wood products during World War One, the government established the Forest Commission. Its aim was to build a strategic timber reserve.

This was achieved by a large scale planting programme, mainly involving non-native conifers, such as North America’s Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis). The plantations were established on marginal agricultural land.

Overall, the UK has quite a diverse wooded landscape; the majority of the native trees are broadleaves. The nation has three native conifers: Scots pine, yew and juniper.

Woodland is considered “semi-natural” if it is composed of locally native species. A small proportion of the remaining woodlands are considered “ancient”, because their origins can be traced back to before 1600AD.

In recent years, a growing awareness for the need to conserve certain habitats and biodiversity has led to a shift in management practices.

From the primary concern being the production of timber, the focus is now on “sustainable forest management”.

This aims to provide social and environmental goods while maintaining an economically viable forest, protecting it for future generations.

The forestry and timber industry is estimated to contribute £7.2bn a year to the UK economy.

It produces nine billion cubic metres of wood products annually, however this is still less that a fifth (18% in 2007) of the total wood products used in the UK each year.

Most wood in imported. The majority of the imports come from Europe, however a sizeable minority comes from further afield.

Campaigners have identified that some of this wood is harvested from old-growth tropical forests, resulting in the loss of valuable habitat and biodiversity.

Looking more detail at the environmental value of a woodland or forrest, a number of “ecosystem services” can be identified, including:

  • protecting soil from erosion
  • reducing flooding in some catchment areas by intercepting rainwater and reducing run-off in stormy weather
  • helping reclaim contaminated land
  • proving shelter, shade and cooling in urban areas, and wind shelters on farmland
  • conserving biodiversity (broadleaved woodlands contain more than twice the number of rare species, according to the UK BAP, than any other habitat
  • conifer plantations also have role to play in conserving rare species, because they offer protection to species like the red squirrel and the capercaille.

Looking at the role of the UK forest and woodland cover in carbon sequestration, it is probably safest to state that it does have a role to play in mitigating the impacts, but it can never replace a broad strategic effort to decarbonise the UK’s economy and activities.

The UK has adopted a number of international forestry agreements – it was a signatory of the Statement for Forest Principles at the Rio summit in 1992. It also agreed to the general declaration on the Protection of Forests in Europe, which was presented at the 1993 European Ministerial Conference in Helsinki, Finland.

These agreements basically enshrine sustainable forestry measures into a policy framework. Hard to believe, but the European Union has no direct jurisdiction over forestry policy. Instead it is formulated at a member state level.

But there are some EU legislation that has an influence on forestry matters. These include CAP, EU Habitats and Species Directive, Environmental Impact Assessments, and the Water Framework Directive.

Within the UK, forest policy has been devolved to the national administrations. Policy in Scotland and Wales is decided by the national Forestry Commissions on behalf of the national political executives.

Since the widespread adaption of conifer plantations in the UK, most are same-age stands, which are felled in large areas in one go.

This is considered to limit or damage the social and environmental value of the plantations and local habitat, so there are plans to consider alternative management techniques, including:

  • Continuous Cover Forestry – smaller areas are felled in one go, allowing the overall habitat to remain largely undisturbed, and also allowing a mixed-age stand to develop)
  • PAWS restoration – some conifer plantations were created on ancient broadleaved woodlands, so there is a growing commitment to restore “PAWS” (Plantation on Ancient Woodland Sites)

Even though there is increased protection measures for semi-natural and ancient woodlands (such as SSSIs etc), their wildlife could still be under threat as a result of human activities. Recent surveys show that many woodland species have declined dramatically since the 1970s. One theory for this worrying trend is because it is the result of changes in the structure of the woodlands, stemming from the lack of management.

Threats to the woodland and the species within them include:

  • increasing fragmentation: small patches of woodland, isolated by other land use changes, are more vulnerable to change and can support fewer species
  • decline in woodland management: over the past century, active management of woodlands for timber has declined. This has led to a reduction in open areas within woodlands, on which many species depend, contributing to a decrease in biodiversity.
  • Overgrazing: Increasing deer numbers (including four introduced species) are an issue across the UK. Deer are a part of the woodland ecosystem, but overgrazing affects tree seedlings, ground flora and other wildlife. In upland areas, sheep can also cause overgrazing.
  • Pollution (and other external influences): the threat from acid rain has decreased over the years as the result of tighter emission controls of coal-fired power stations. However, localised air pollution can still be a problem. Fertiliser and pesticide drift from adjacent farmland is an issue on woodland edges.
  • Invasive species: some non-native species (such as rhododendron and grey squirrels) pose threats to woodland ecosystems by damaging or out-competing native species.
  • impact from recreational users: trampling can have a locally significant impact on woodland ground flora. Disturbance by humans and dogs may also affect other wildlife, such as breeding birds.

The future of woodlands is ultimately at the mercy of climate change. Changes are already being observed within the woods in the UK, Oak buds are opening up to two weeks earlier than what they were in the 1950s, probably as a result of warming temperatures.

There is one school of thought that suggests that increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere will lead to plants and trees increase the rate at which they convert the gas and nutrients, leading to an increased growth rate.

However, other factors need to be taken into account, such as changes to precipitation or water tables.

All projections and models have a degree of uncertainty within them, so there is not a clear picture of how the nation’s woodlands will look in the future. The only certainty is that they are not going to remain static and change is occurring.

Source: UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (Post)

Date: 02/02/2009 (however the postnote was first published in 2007)

Landmark agreement for England’s trees


The Forestry Commission and Natural England have joined forces with more than 100 organisations, representing woodland owners, forestry businesses, conservation and local communities to create a new five-year action plan for trees and woodlands in England.

A press release from the Forestry Commission said that the ultimate goal of the new partnership was to deliver a healthier landscape for wildlife and an increase in people visiting woodlands for leisure and tourism by 2020.

The local environment and local communities will be improved with more, high-quality, wooded greenspace close to where people live and a revival of trees in our streets.

It added that the management of the both small, private woods and large commercial forestry will provide greater use of home-grown wood in construction and woodfuel,

Speaking at the launch of the scheme, Forestry Minister Huw Irranca-Davies said: “There are more than a million hectares of woodland and forest in England today.

“Trees make a big difference to people’s quality of life and wellbeing, improving the places where we live, work and play.

“People need to be able to get involved in planning, managing and looking after their local woodlands and trees, and the plan launched today will help us to make the most of our trees to combat climate change, protect wildlife, and yield other social, economic and environmental benefits.”

Forestry Commission chairman Lord Clark of Windermere added: “These are important and exciting times for trees, woods and forests in England as they face the challenges of climate change while providing a range of benefits to people, wildlife and to our economy.

He went on to say: “This new plan is testament to those people representing landowners, businesses, communities, local councils and government who worked together to secure the future for our trees, woods and forests.”

Sir Martin Doughty, chairman of Natural England, acknowledged the crucial role that trees played in ecological and economic terms, as well as adding to people’s quality of life.

“These benefits are increasingly being recognised, but they can only be secured through careful long term planning and co-ordinated action,” he said.

“Today’s Delivery Plan has been created through working closely with a wide range of organisations and local communities and marks a major step forward in securing a sustainable future for our woodlands.”

Source: Forestry Commission press release

Date: 15/12/2008

Weller in the woods…


“Modfather” Paul Weller has announced a series of gigs in spectacular woodland locations across the UK this summer as part of Forestry Commission Live Music 2009.

The commission, in a press release, goes on to say:

Described as both the ‘modfather of rock’ and ‘Britpop’s elder statesman’, Paul is ultimately acknowledged by the media, fellow musicians and the public as one of the greatest singer-songwriters of British popular music.

Since his early days in The Jam, then Style Council and subsequently as a hugely successful solo artist, Paul continues to make pioneering music.

Last year saw the release of the critically acclaimed number one album ‘22 Dreams’, his ninth solo album in a career spanning over three decades.

He will be performing at the following venues:

Friday 5 June – Thetford Forest, Near Brandon, Suffolk
Friday 12 June – Delamere Forest, Delamere, Cheshire
Friday 19 June – Sherwood Pines Forest Park, Near Edwinstowe, Notts
Saturday 20 June – Westonbirt Arboretum, Near Tetbury, Glos
Friday 26 June – Cannock Chase Forest, Near Rugeley, Staffs
Saturday 27 June – Dalby Forest, Near Pickering, N Yorks

Tickets go on sale from Friday 16 January, costing £33.00 (subject to booking fee), from the Forestry Commission Box Office 01842 814612, online at www.forestry.gov.uk/music or over the counter from the venues.

The commission was quick to add that the tour was self-sustaining, paying for itself. It added that the gigs were also generating “valuable revenue to plough back into the woodland in a variety of environmental and social projects”.

For more information, please visit:

www.paulweller.com

www.forestry.gov.uk/music

Source: Forestry Commission UK press release

Date: 13/01/2009

Sudden oak death hits UK national park


Restrictions have been introduced on visitors to the New Forest National Park in southern England after the discovery of a plant and tree-killing disease, the BBC News website reports.

Sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) was discovered in a small number of rhododendron bushes along one of the park’s trails.

Visitors have been told to stick to pathways and keep dogs on a lead in signposted areas in order to prevent spreading.

The Forestry Commission said there was no risk to human health.

Mike Seddon, deputy surveyor for the New Forest, said: “As a result of routine monitoring undertaken as part of national measures to protect Britain’s trees and forests against Phytophthora ramorum, infection has been confirmed on some Rhododendron ponticum bushes.

“We are now working with Defra to determine the exact scale and extent of the outbreak, and to destroy infected plants,” he added

“In the meantime the public may continue to enjoy visiting the New Forest as usual.

“However, to help prevent the spread of the disease, we ask that in signposted infected areas they stay on the footpaths, keep dogs on leads, and do not take plant cuttings. There is no risk to human health.”

Sudden oak death was first identified in California, where it has made tan oak trees a rarity.

It causes roots and leaf discolouration, resulting in the death of the infected plants.

In the UK, rhododendron and viburnum are most commonly affected.

Mr Seddon added that, despite its nickname, sudden oak death actually poses little risk to the New Forest’s oak trees.

“There is, however, evidence that other species, such as beech and ash, are susceptible,” he said.

“Our approach therefore is to find out exactly the extent and severity of the outbreak and destroy the infected shrubs and plants to minimise the risk of the infection spreading into the New Forest’s trees.

“We have set up a survey of the area within 3.0km (1.8-mile) of the outbreak.”

Signs have been erected in the forest giving more information.

Source: BBC News website

Date: 08/01/2009

Autumn watch on both sides of the Atlantic


Tree lovers on both sides of the Atlantic are able to make sure that they do not miss out on the colourful delights of autumn, thanks to the websites of the US Forest Service and the UK Forestry Commission.

The US Forest Service is offering people a free “hotline”,  which is an automated phone service that will inform callers about the colour of the leaves in the national forests.

Meanwhile in the UK, the Forestry Commission has set up a website that offers a colour-coded website of the commission’s plantations. The website shows what colour the leaves of the various woodlands have reached (ranging from “still green” to “turned golden”).

Although the UK experienced a much wetter than average August, an official for the Forestry Commission said that the woodlands were still “on course” for a colourful autumn.

Source: US Forest Service and UK Forestry Commission websites

Date: 24/09/2008

UK’s famous maples ‘must adapt to climate change’


The collection of Japanese maples at the UK National Arboretum need to adapt in order to survive the impacts of future climate change, a researcher has told a conference examining the problem.

Speaking at PlantNetwork’s “Climate Change and Planting for the Future” gathering, Dr Richard Jinks of Forest Research outlined how the UK Forestry Commission was embarking on a full-scale plan to ensure that the world-famous collection of Japanese maples at Westonbirt, Gloucestershire, could thrive in the future.

A press release from the Forestry Commission explained that an evaluation of these and other trees in the collection would assess their drought tolerance and the best way of helping them adapt to change.

Measures are likely to include succession planting and good horticultural practices to enhance soil moisture levels in dry summers.

There are more than 300 types of maples (acers) in the National Japanese Acer Collection at the National Arboretum.

Each autumn they put on a blazing show of colour, admired by many thousands of visitors from all over the world.

Dr Jinks said many acers thrived on a constant supply of moisture, and the evaluation would highlight how the trees could be susceptible to extended periods of drought.

“These acers are not only stunning trees but also form an important national collection,” he told delegates.

“It is vital that we take stock now and monitor them closely, putting plans in place to safeguard their future.

“We need to propagate and plant new collections now, not only for 50 years time but for far into the future.”

The PlantNetwork conference attracted more than 100 delegates from botanic and historic gardens, government agencies and research institutes.

It was held at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester from 10-12 September.

Source: Forestry Commission press release

Date: 11/09/2008

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