Model shows ‘waves of forest degradation’


An international team of researchers has developed a model that suggests degradation of tropical forests occurs in a series of “waves”, reports the BBC News website’s Mark Kinver.

High-value trees were felled in the first “wave”, followed by a wave that removed mid-value timber before the remaining wood was felled for charcoal.

The team hopes the model will help manage forests as vital carbon sinks and limit the loss of biodiversity.

The findings appear in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The researchers said an economic theory was used to provide a general model to predict patterns of tree loss.

This translates to a prediction that waves of forest degradation will emanate from major demand centres and expand into nearby forested areas, targeting resources in sequence, starting with those of highest value,” they wrote in their PNAS paper.

“Such a sequence of demand, linked to resource utilisation, has been demonstrated for unmanaged fisheries… but has not been shown for the exploitation of differently valued tropical forest products.”

The team used data collected in the area surrounding Tanzania’s largest city, Dar es Salaam, to see how far the degradation “waves” had travelled between 1991 and 2005.

“The first wave that emanates is high-value timber, and that is mostly used for export,” explained co-author Antje Ahrends, an ecologist at the Royal Botanical Garden, Edinburgh.

“There has been a massive demand for this in China, and this is where most of the timber ends up.”

Dr Ahrends said the first wave moved out from Dar es Salaam rapidly, averaging about nine kilometres each year, because the “timber companies had lorries and loads of people working for them”.

“For the firms, it is only worthwhile to stay in a forest when timber can be accessed relatively easily,” she told BBC News.

“So once it becomes not so easy to get hold of the rest, the companies generally move on.”

The first wave had already moved outside of the team’s study area, and Dr Ahrends estimated that it was already more than 200km from Dar es Salaam.

The second wave saw trees being felled for medium-valued timber, which was generally used in the city for construction and furniture.

“This is expanding very rapidly, in line with urban migration,” she explained. “The town has an average growth rate of about 7% each year, so there is – again – a rapidly growing demand for this material.”

The timber is harvested by local companies, again with lorries, allowing large volumes to be collected in a relatively short space of time. This resulted in this degradation wave to also cover about nine kilometres each year.

The third and final wave involved local people collecting wood to make charcoal for cooking.

“It’s the most destructive of all of the waves because charcoal burners would collect everything,” observed Dr Ahrends, who was based at the York Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Dynamics when she carried out this research.

“It is only worthwhile moving on once there are no sizeable trees left in the forest.”

As a result, the charcoal wave had moved relatively slowly – from 20km outside Dar es Salaam in 1991 to 50km away in 2005.

“It is the most difficult of the waves to tackle because it is very poor people who burn charcoal and their livelihoods depend upon it.”

“Targeting that wave would mean trying to provide alternative resources for cooking, and alternative incomes for people who burn charcoal.

Species loss

The team also developed their model to gauge what impact forest degradation had on “public good” services, such as carbon storage and biodiversity.

They did this by recording what species of trees were in a particular area of the study, and what size the individual trees were.

“This later enabled us to calculate species richness and also the amount of carbon those trees were storing,” Dr Ahrends said.

“We found that there was a very strong linear impacts; for example, tree species richness dropped to only 14 species-per-sample-unit close to Dar es Salaam, whereas it is more than 40 species in areas 200km away.”

Dr Ahrends suggested that the model could be used to understand the impact of forest degradation in other sub-Sarahan nations in Africa.

“This is because conditions are very similar: high levels of corruption, weak law enforcement and very rapid rates of urbanisation.”

She added that the team’s model could help policymakers who were looking at ways to limit deforestation rates.

“What is really important is to understand the pattern of degradation and the way it spreads,” she suggested.

“While we have a good understanding of deforestation – which is the complete clearance of a forest – it is much more difficult to measure degradation.

“So if you have this simple model, then you have a basic understanding of how degradation might spread… which may help you develop some prediction of where it might spread from and how far it might spread.”

Source: BBC News website

Date: 03/08/2010

Boost for Indonesian ‘ecosystem restoration’ forest


Indonesia’s forests  received a boost when the nation’s government announced plans to double the size of the country’s first forest for “ecosystem restoration”, according to a joint press release issued by the RSPB.

It says that Indonesian Forest Minister Zulkifli Hasan has announced that he will expand the 52,000 hectare concession held by Burung Indonesia, the RSPB (UK) and BirdLife International in central Sumatra to a total area of 98,000 hectares.

According to the RSPB, the restoration area now equals two-thirds the size of greater London and is greater than the size of Singapore.

The bird conservation group welcomed the news, adding that other applications for ‘forest restoration’ licences are being submitted to the nation’s forestry ministry.

In 2009, the ministry is reported to have received as many applications for forest restoration licences as it did for logging concessions.

Applications for forest restoration totalled a further two million hectares, and are now being assessed.

The 98,000 hectares where the minister announced he would grant “ecosystem restoration” is within Harapan Rainforest, one of the last remaining areas of dry lowland Sumatran forest and is one of the most threatened rainforests in the world.

It is home to a host of rare animal and plant species, including the critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), of which fewer than 300 remain in the wild.

It supports an amazing 55 mammal species, including the globally-threatened Asian elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) and Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), as well as the world’s rarest stork – the Storm’s stork (Ciconia stormi) – and a rich diversity of other wildlife.

An initial licence of 52,000 hectares was granted to the environmental consortium in 2008, allowing them to protect, nurture and restore the forest in a former logging concession.

Illegal logging has been significantly decreased and forest fires, which once released significant carbon dioxide emissions, have been all but stamped out. Not only is the forest an important carbon store, but the tree planting programme in Harapan Rainforest is capturing more carbon from the atmosphere.

Botanic experts from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in the UK have identified a plant growing in the forest, Emblemantha urnulata B. C. Stone, that is unique to the area and had only been recorded twice before.

Agus B. Utomo, the Executive Director of Burung Indonesia, said: “The Ministry of Forestry had the foresight to create a new form of forest management in 2004 with the ‘ecosystem restoration’ licence.

“We’re delighted that ecosystem restoration is now an integral part of forest management strategies in Indonesia. As a result, Burung Indonesia is already planning to expand our portfolio of ecosystem restoration concessions.”

Source : RSPB press release

Date: 18/06/2010

Wales to update its ancient woodlands map


Forestry Commission Wales has announced plans to update the nation’s Ancient Woodland Inventory.

Take Cover library image In a press release, the commission said that these habitats, which date back to at least the 17th Century, “support many species of plants and wildlife that depend on the evolving but continuous environments created by dead and dying wood and broken sunlight”.

It added that the inventory was first produced about 30 years ago, and since then, technology for gathering data had improved dramatically and better sources of information had come to light.

The update, which will be carried out over the next 12 months, will identify former ancient woodlands that have subsequently been planted with conifer trees to satisfy the demand for timber over many decades.

These woodlands are known as Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites (PAWS).

This information will guide decisions on restoring some of the PAWS to their natural state by removing non-native trees and planting native broadleaf species such as oak, birch, rowan and ash.

“Such work helps to increase the variety of different plant and wildlife species in the woodland by improving habitats and providing food and shelter,” the commission explained.

Wood pastures – ancient and veteran trees found on grazed sites – will also be systematically recorded as part of the update to the inventory.

Despite the ecological value of wood pasture, it has no legal protection, so identification on the inventory may help protect these sites from damage or destruction.

The concept of  “ancient woodland” was developed in the 1970s and 1980s, when studies showed that woodlands that have had a continuous woodland cover for centuries were typically of higher nature conservation value than those that had developed recently.

The baseline date of 1600 AD was adopted because reasonable maps were available from this time (in England, at least).

But the commission admitted that it was an arbitrary date, and there was no clear ecological cut-off.

Michelle van Velzen, forestry and environment policy and programme manager at Forestry Commission Wales, said: “Ancient woodlands are a precious and finite resource that cannot be recreated.

“This update to the Ancient Woodland Inventory will ensure we have the most comprehensive and accurate information on the extent and nature of ancient woodlands in Wales.”

The update to the inventory will be completed in March 2011 and the new information will be supplied to local authorities for their use when developing planning policy that affects woodland.

Source: Forestry Commission Wales press release

Date: 11/06/2010

Study finds 25 news beetle species on Turkey’s oaks


Twenty-five hitherto unknown species of beetle have been found on the Turkey’s oak trees, according to a study by Swedish researchers.

Take Cover library picture“Most of them would disappear if the trees were to be cut down, and the risk is great”, says project leader Nicklas Jansson, beetle ecologist at Linkoping University (LiU) in Sweden.

In Turkey, there are 18 species of the oak family, and Dr Jansson and his research team spent five years collecting beetles from oak trees in four large pastures in the south of the country.

They said the study areas – 1,200-1,500 metres above sea level – were important for sheep and goat farming, but were now threatened by felling to make way for productive forest management.

They warned that as with all felling there is a major risk that some species become extinct since the oak dwelling beetles stay so faithful to their biotope.

“Some of the species seem to have a very low motivation to leave and find a new oak,” Dr Jansson observed.

Most of the newly discovered beetles belong to the Elateridae and Tenobrionidae families and have been identified by some 20 specialists across Europe.

The results were presented at a conference on oak ecology in Isparta, Turkey.

The researchers identified a number of factors that could be responsible for the greater diversity of beetles:

  • a climate that allowed species to hibernate during the Ice Ages
  • the topography which creates many barriers in the form of mountain ranges and other obstacles to the mixing of species
  • the geographic location as a bridge between Asia and Europe.

In a follow-up project, the research team planned to compare the oak fauna of seven countries, including Israel, Turkey, Italy, France, the UK  and Sweden.

The oaks in the Turkish pastures are pollarded. Shepherd people prune the trees in July and during the dry season use the leaves as feed for sheep and goats while the branches become fuel.

As a result of pollarding, many of the oaks were hollow and contain wood mould, a very rich compost of decomposed wood, fungi, excrement and remains of dead animals.

“I hope that in finding new and unique species we will get the Turkish forestry authorities to open their eyes to their oak treasures and to begin conservation work in the most valuable areas,” Dr Jansson explained.

Source: AlphaGalileo press release

Date: 01/06/2010

Brazil sees fall in deforestation rate


Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon fell to 291 square miles (754 square kilometres) between November 2008 and January 2009, reports Mongabay.com.

This was a drop of 70% when compared to the same period 12 months earlier, said Brazil’s Environment Minister Carlos Minc.

A decrease in forest clearing had been expected.

Economic turmoil, which has reduced the availability of credit, and collapsing commodity prices (especially beef and soy) had undermined the main drivers of deforestation.

Mr Minc also credited government efforts, including increased vigilance and new loan policies, for the decline.

The data is based on Brazil’s Real-time Detection of Deforestation (DETER) system for tracking deforestation.

DETER is an alert system that updates IBAMA (Brazil’s environmental protection agency) with deforestation information, theoretically allowing authorities to attack illegal deforestation as it occurs.

However, the system requires on-the-ground follow up action, something that is difficult consider the poor land titling and political conflict between federal and regional authorities.

However, Brazil is developing an advanced satellite, which is called Amazon-1, that will use cloud-penetrating technology to allow more detailed monitoring of the Amazon.

Nearly 20% of the Brazilian Amazon, which accounts for about 60% of the world’s largest rainforest, has been destroyed since the early 1970s, but deforestation has slowed significantly since 2004.

Last year, the Brazilian government announced an ambitious plan to cut deforestation rates to 5,600 square kilometres (2150 sq mi) per year by 2014 in an effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Deforestation presently accounts for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 04/03/2009

Twiglet: Indonesian newly weds must plant trees


An Indonesian district in West Java, Garut, has started a unique program to support reforestation.

Mongabay.com reports that any couple planning to get married must give 10 trees to local authorities for reforestation efforts before the marriage will be legally sanctioned.

But it’s not just married couples that must support reforestation. Couples filing for divorce must provide at least one tree, according to Wibowo, the district secretary.

The new rules are the result of budget difficulties within the Garut district government, after the central government launched a plan to plant a million trees across Indonesia.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 05/03/2009

Deforestation in Vietnam continues to rise


Deforestation has increased by 55% during the past year in Vietnam’s Dak Nong province, reports the Vietnam News Agency.

A report in Mongabay.com said that at least 440 hectares (1,100 acres) of tropical forest were illegally logged in the central highland province, and protected areas were also being targeted.

Forest officials attribute the increase to high commodity, especially corn, prices, which encourages the conversion of forest for cropland.

Another factor, the website reports, is the  lack of staff and resources among companies that have leased forest concessions.

Vietnam has one of the world’s highest rates of primary forest loss.

Between 1990 and 2005, the country lost 78% of its old-growth forests. Much of these were replaced with industrial plantations, with overall forest cover increasing by more than a third since 1990.

Plantations are biologically impoverished relative to natural forests. They also store less carbon.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 18/02/2009

Norway to pay Guyana to protect rainforests


Norway will provide financial support for Guyana’s ambitious plan to conserve its rainforests, reports Mongabay.com.

During a meeting in Oslo, Guyana President Bharrat Jagdeo and Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg signedan agreement to establish a partnership to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).

It is also understood that the leaders will also push for the incorporation of a REDD mechanism that includes low deforestation countries like Guyana in a post-2012 climate change agreement.

“We agreed that if the world is to prevent irreversible climate change, it is essential that greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are drastically reduced,” the men said in a statement.

It continued: “To achieve this vital objective, they agreed that determined and concerted action is needed.

“They emphasised that efforts under the UNFCCC towards REDD must be properly designed to ensure that deforestation is significantly reduced in countries where it is already occurring, and avoided in countries where deforestation rates are still low.”

Mr Stoltenberg added that REDD “would provide funding for provide funding for a shift away from forest-dependent employment and income generation, towards support for the creation of low carbon development and low deforestation economies”.

Norway’s financial commitment was not specified, although the statement noted that the Scandinavian country was “prepared to provide performance-based, substantial and sustained compensation for the progress Guyana makes in limiting emissions from deforestation at low levels and further decreasing forest degradation”.

The agreement includes the establishment of a “reputable international organisation” to distribute funds for low-carbon development based on Guyana’s performance.

President Jagdeo welcomed the deal: “The developing and the developed countries must work together to address global warming. I commend the government of Norway for showing leadership through its climate and forest initiative.”

Norway has pledged up to $430 million per year to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.

To date, it has already committed up to $1bn to Brazil’s Sustainable Amazon Fund, provided the South American country meet targets for reducing deforestation.

Source: Mongabay.com

Date: 05/02/2009

Amazon rainfall projections ‘underestimated’


Amazonian forests may be less vulnerable to dying off from global warming than feared because many projections underestimate rainfall, Reuters reports.

A study by UK researchers suggested that Brazil and other nations in the region would also have to act to help avert any irreversible drying of the eastern Amazon, the region most at risk from climate change, deforestation and fires.

“The rainfall regime in eastern Amazonia is likely to shift over the 21st Century in a direction that favours more seasonal forests rather than savannah,” the team write in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Seasonal forests have wet and dry seasons rather than the current rainforest, which is permanently drenched.

It is argued that this shift in precipitation patterns could result in the emergence of new species of trees, other plants and animals.

The findings challenge past projections that the Amazon forest could die and be replaced by savannah.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reported in 2007: “By mid-century, increases in temperature and associated decreases in soil water are projected to lead to gradual replacement of tropical forest by savannah in eastern Amazonia.”

The new study said that almost all of 19 global climate models underestimated rainfall in the world’s biggest tropical forest.

Lowland forests in the Amazon have annual average rainfall of 2,400 mm (94 inches), it said.

Projected cuts in rainfall meant the region would still be wet enough to sustain a forest.

The experts also examined field studies of how the Amazon might react to drying.

It said that seasonal forests would be more resilient to the occasional drought but more vulnerable to fires than the current rainforest.

“The fundamental way to minimise the risk of Amazon dieback is to control greenhouse gas emissions globally, particularly from fossil fuel combustion in the developed world and Asia,” said Yadvinder Malhi, the lead author from Oxford University.

But he said that governments led by Brazil also needed to improve their forest management policies.

Global warming is “accompanied by an unprecedented intensity of direct pressure on the tropical forests through logging, deforestation, fragmentation, and fire use,” the scientists wrote.

And fires, including those touched off by lightning, were more likely to cause wide damage to forests already fragmented by roads or by farmers clearing land to plant crops, such as soya beans.

Source: Reuters

Date: 09/02/2009

Battle on to save Scotland’s red squirrels


More than £1m is to be spent over the next three years on saving Scotland’s red squirrels and protecting routes into their northern strongholds, the BBC News website reports.

The number or reds has been in decline since the arrival of the grey squirrel from North America in the 19th Century.

Greys compete with reds for food and can also carry the squirrel pox virus, which can kills reds in about 14 days.

There are currently about 121,000 red squirrels in Scotland and the country is home to 75% of the UK’s reds.

There are thought to be between 200,000 and 300,000 greys in Scotland.

The £1.3m Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels (SSRS) project is being launched in Dunkeld, Perthshire.

See a map of shifting red and grey squirrel territories

It will develop habitats in which the red squirrel can flourish but will also try to control the greys, which will involve killing them.

The Scottish Wildlife Trust (SWT), Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), Forestry Commission Scotland (FCS), and the Scottish Rural Property and Business Association (SRPBA) are involved in the project.

Environment Minister Mike Russell said: “The red squirrel is one of our most beautiful and valuable native species. Therefore its loss would be absolutely unforgiveable.

“Saving Scotland’s Red Squirrels is a true partnership organisation and I am hopeful that its activity will see the red squirrels able to thrive once again in this country and ensure that future generations are able to enjoy them.”

Ron McDonald, from SNH, said that grey squirrel control would be focussed on the key routes being used by grey squirrels to spread north.

“Greys have already displaced red squirrels from most of England, Wales and Scotland’s central belt, but much of the north still remains grey-free,” he said.

“With sightings of greys becoming more frequent in northern Perthshire and Angus, and a population of grey squirrels already established in Aberdeen, it is imperative that we act quickly to protect red squirrels north of the central belt and prevent the grey’s further migration.”

Stuart Brooks, from SWT, added: “I can understand and empathise with those people who do not like the prospect of killing wild animals, but it is disingenuous to say that there are viable alternative solutions to saving the red squirrel in Scotland.

“Work is under way on a vaccine for squirrel pox but it is not around the corner and habitat improvements are a key component of our longer-term strategy.

“To do nothing now will certainly consign our native squirrel to a painful and lingering death.”

The SSRS project is expected to start work properly in April.

Source: BBC News website

Date: 10/02/2009

Twiglet: UK woodlands and forests


The social and environmental value of woodlands and forests in the UK is estimated to be in the region of £1bn, states a postnote from the UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology.

Once, most of the UK was covered in woodland but the cover was gradually depleted as the demand for timber, fuel and agriculture grew.

By the beginning of the 20th Century, woodlands made up about 5% of the mainland.

Following the sharp increase in demand for wood products during World War One, the government established the Forest Commission. Its aim was to build a strategic timber reserve.

This was achieved by a large scale planting programme, mainly involving non-native conifers, such as North America’s Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis). The plantations were established on marginal agricultural land.

Overall, the UK has quite a diverse wooded landscape; the majority of the native trees are broadleaves. The nation has three native conifers: Scots pine, yew and juniper.

Woodland is considered “semi-natural” if it is composed of locally native species. A small proportion of the remaining woodlands are considered “ancient”, because their origins can be traced back to before 1600AD.

In recent years, a growing awareness for the need to conserve certain habitats and biodiversity has led to a shift in management practices.

From the primary concern being the production of timber, the focus is now on “sustainable forest management”.

This aims to provide social and environmental goods while maintaining an economically viable forest, protecting it for future generations.

The forestry and timber industry is estimated to contribute £7.2bn a year to the UK economy.

It produces nine billion cubic metres of wood products annually, however this is still less that a fifth (18% in 2007) of the total wood products used in the UK each year.

Most wood in imported. The majority of the imports come from Europe, however a sizeable minority comes from further afield.

Campaigners have identified that some of this wood is harvested from old-growth tropical forests, resulting in the loss of valuable habitat and biodiversity.

Looking more detail at the environmental value of a woodland or forrest, a number of “ecosystem services” can be identified, including:

  • protecting soil from erosion
  • reducing flooding in some catchment areas by intercepting rainwater and reducing run-off in stormy weather
  • helping reclaim contaminated land
  • proving shelter, shade and cooling in urban areas, and wind shelters on farmland
  • conserving biodiversity (broadleaved woodlands contain more than twice the number of rare species, according to the UK BAP, than any other habitat
  • conifer plantations also have role to play in conserving rare species, because they offer protection to species like the red squirrel and the capercaille.

Looking at the role of the UK forest and woodland cover in carbon sequestration, it is probably safest to state that it does have a role to play in mitigating the impacts, but it can never replace a broad strategic effort to decarbonise the UK’s economy and activities.

The UK has adopted a number of international forestry agreements – it was a signatory of the Statement for Forest Principles at the Rio summit in 1992. It also agreed to the general declaration on the Protection of Forests in Europe, which was presented at the 1993 European Ministerial Conference in Helsinki, Finland.

These agreements basically enshrine sustainable forestry measures into a policy framework. Hard to believe, but the European Union has no direct jurisdiction over forestry policy. Instead it is formulated at a member state level.

But there are some EU legislation that has an influence on forestry matters. These include CAP, EU Habitats and Species Directive, Environmental Impact Assessments, and the Water Framework Directive.

Within the UK, forest policy has been devolved to the national administrations. Policy in Scotland and Wales is decided by the national Forestry Commissions on behalf of the national political executives.

Since the widespread adaption of conifer plantations in the UK, most are same-age stands, which are felled in large areas in one go.

This is considered to limit or damage the social and environmental value of the plantations and local habitat, so there are plans to consider alternative management techniques, including:

  • Continuous Cover Forestry – smaller areas are felled in one go, allowing the overall habitat to remain largely undisturbed, and also allowing a mixed-age stand to develop)
  • PAWS restoration – some conifer plantations were created on ancient broadleaved woodlands, so there is a growing commitment to restore “PAWS” (Plantation on Ancient Woodland Sites)

Even though there is increased protection measures for semi-natural and ancient woodlands (such as SSSIs etc), their wildlife could still be under threat as a result of human activities. Recent surveys show that many woodland species have declined dramatically since the 1970s. One theory for this worrying trend is because it is the result of changes in the structure of the woodlands, stemming from the lack of management.

Threats to the woodland and the species within them include:

  • increasing fragmentation: small patches of woodland, isolated by other land use changes, are more vulnerable to change and can support fewer species
  • decline in woodland management: over the past century, active management of woodlands for timber has declined. This has led to a reduction in open areas within woodlands, on which many species depend, contributing to a decrease in biodiversity.
  • Overgrazing: Increasing deer numbers (including four introduced species) are an issue across the UK. Deer are a part of the woodland ecosystem, but overgrazing affects tree seedlings, ground flora and other wildlife. In upland areas, sheep can also cause overgrazing.
  • Pollution (and other external influences): the threat from acid rain has decreased over the years as the result of tighter emission controls of coal-fired power stations. However, localised air pollution can still be a problem. Fertiliser and pesticide drift from adjacent farmland is an issue on woodland edges.
  • Invasive species: some non-native species (such as rhododendron and grey squirrels) pose threats to woodland ecosystems by damaging or out-competing native species.
  • impact from recreational users: trampling can have a locally significant impact on woodland ground flora. Disturbance by humans and dogs may also affect other wildlife, such as breeding birds.

The future of woodlands is ultimately at the mercy of climate change. Changes are already being observed within the woods in the UK, Oak buds are opening up to two weeks earlier than what they were in the 1950s, probably as a result of warming temperatures.

There is one school of thought that suggests that increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere will lead to plants and trees increase the rate at which they convert the gas and nutrients, leading to an increased growth rate.

However, other factors need to be taken into account, such as changes to precipitation or water tables.

All projections and models have a degree of uncertainty within them, so there is not a clear picture of how the nation’s woodlands will look in the future. The only certainty is that they are not going to remain static and change is occurring.

Source: UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (Post)

Date: 02/02/2009 (however the postnote was first published in 2007)

DR Congo cancels timber contracts


The Democratic Republic of Congo government has cancelled nearly 60% of timber contracts in the world’s second-largest tropical rainforest, the BBC News website reports.

It follows a six-month review of 156 logging deals aimed at stamping out corruption in the sector and enforcing legal and environmental standards.

At the end of the World Bank-backed process, government ministers found that only 65 timber deals were viable.

New contracts will be issued for 90,000 sq km (35,000 square miles) of forest.

Environment Minister Jose Endundo told a news conference in the capital Kinshasa that the other agreements would be cancelled.

“I will proceed within the next 48 hours to notify those applicants having received an unfavourable recommendation from the inter-ministerial commission through decrees cancelling their respective conventions,” he was quoted as saying by Reuters news agency.

“Upon notification of the cancellation decision, the operator must immediately stop cutting timber.”

Mr Endundo also said the government planned to respect a moratorium, introduced during Congo’s 1998-2003 war but widely ignored, on granting new logging deals.

The BBC’s Thomas Fessy in Kinshasa says all the timber agreements were struck during the conflict.

Amid rampant corruption, huge concessions were gifted to logging companies, which paid almost no tax, he says.

Monday’s decision should reduce the surface area exploited by timber firms by up to half, according to our correspondent.

The Congo Basin is home to the second largest tropical forest in the world after the Amazon, but campaigners say it is being eaten away by logging, mining and agricultural land clearance.

Sarah Shoraka, of Greenpeace, says the new rules must be enforced to protect a vital resource.

“Real economic development is what’s needed,” she told the BBC’s Focus on Africa programme.

“We’ve highlighted tax evasion, and there’s often quite serious disputes between local people and these logging companies.

“The logging companies promise hospitals and schools and they hardly ever deliver these things on the ground.”

Source: BBC News website

Date: 19/01/2009

Landmark agreement for England’s trees


The Forestry Commission and Natural England have joined forces with more than 100 organisations, representing woodland owners, forestry businesses, conservation and local communities to create a new five-year action plan for trees and woodlands in England.

A press release from the Forestry Commission said that the ultimate goal of the new partnership was to deliver a healthier landscape for wildlife and an increase in people visiting woodlands for leisure and tourism by 2020.

The local environment and local communities will be improved with more, high-quality, wooded greenspace close to where people live and a revival of trees in our streets.

It added that the management of the both small, private woods and large commercial forestry will provide greater use of home-grown wood in construction and woodfuel,

Speaking at the launch of the scheme, Forestry Minister Huw Irranca-Davies said: “There are more than a million hectares of woodland and forest in England today.

“Trees make a big difference to people’s quality of life and wellbeing, improving the places where we live, work and play.

“People need to be able to get involved in planning, managing and looking after their local woodlands and trees, and the plan launched today will help us to make the most of our trees to combat climate change, protect wildlife, and yield other social, economic and environmental benefits.”

Forestry Commission chairman Lord Clark of Windermere added: “These are important and exciting times for trees, woods and forests in England as they face the challenges of climate change while providing a range of benefits to people, wildlife and to our economy.

He went on to say: “This new plan is testament to those people representing landowners, businesses, communities, local councils and government who worked together to secure the future for our trees, woods and forests.”

Sir Martin Doughty, chairman of Natural England, acknowledged the crucial role that trees played in ecological and economic terms, as well as adding to people’s quality of life.

“These benefits are increasingly being recognised, but they can only be secured through careful long term planning and co-ordinated action,” he said.

“Today’s Delivery Plan has been created through working closely with a wide range of organisations and local communities and marks a major step forward in securing a sustainable future for our woodlands.”

Source: Forestry Commission press release

Date: 15/12/2008

Twiglet: Trees are farmers’ best friends


At the turn of the 20th Century in France, many flowering trees, such as hawthorn and whitebeam, were protected by law.

This was because the authorities knew that birds, which relied on the energy-rich autumnal fruits, would lay seige to springtime insects, which would otherwise damage crops.

Natural approach that delivered a safe, simple and cheap biological control.

France has had the right attitude towards trees for more than a century, yet in the UK the battle to recognise the importance of trees goes on.

Spain to plant trees to combat desertification


The Spanish government has announced plans to plant 45 million trees, reports the Economic Times.

Quoting the Spanish news agency EFE, the Times says the planting will take place between 2009 and 2012.

It will be part of a 90m-euro (US $127m/£71m) programme to combat desertification and the impact of man-made climate change, EFE added.

Spanish Environment Minister Elena Espinosa said that the planned investment “gives an idea of the government’s commitment to the defence and encouragement of biodiversity”, and added that “new jobs will be created to carry out this task”.

She added that the project would generate employment opportunities for the equavilent of almost 3,000 full-time jobs.

The minister said that reforestation will protect endemic tree species and will be carried out over an total area of 61,300 hectares.

At the same time, planting trees will lead to the recovery and increase of biodiversity and of endemic ecosystems, the improvement and preservation of the landscape, and the consolidation of ecological corridors, Ms Espinosa outlined.

Source: Economic Times

Date: 15/09/2008

UK woodland birds ‘in decline’


The latest Breeding Bird Survey for the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), in partnership with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, has highlighted a significant decline in woodland bird species, writes the woodlands.co.uk blog.

It says that the annual survey has revealed numbers down by more than 50% in several species, the worst hit being the willow tit down by 77%.

The reason for the decline is not obvious, the blog adds.

“It isn’t due to loss of habitat – there is more woodland in the UK today than there has ever been, and, on the whole, modern woodland management is more sympathetic to environmental concerns.

“The Farm Woodland Scheme and Farm Woodland Premium Scheme have also encouraged the planting of small woodlands.”

It suggests the fall in breeding woodland bird species may be the result of a change to the composition and structure of the UK’s woodlands.

“Traditional methods of management such as coppicing provide a perfect habitat for warblers and nightingales, for instance,” woodlands.co.uk reports.

“The coppicing process whereby the wood is regularly cut back creates open woodland with plenty of undergrowth for nesting. Where coppice is left to grow unchecked, eventually the canopy closes and the undergrowth is shaded out.

“Mature woodland with a closed canopy supports tree-dwelling birds such as the woodpecker, but offers a less diverse selection of species overall.”

The blog highlights a possible connection between the fall in bird numbers and the growing population of deer: “Many woodland species like the woodland edges and open areas where there is shrubby, low-level cover.

“An explosion in the number of deer in the UK has had a noticeable impact on just this sort of habitat through grazing at the herb and low shrub level. It is quite likely that this is making a serious impact on woodland bird numbers.”

Migration has also been suggested as a factor.

Several British woodland birds, such as the wood warbler, are annual summer visitors that overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been suggested that drought in that region may be having an effect.

Citing studies in the Netherlands, the blog post by Catherine also suggested that reduction of habitat quality through traffic noise from nearby roads could have significantly affected local woodland bird populations.

Source: woodlands.co.uk

Date: 22/08/2008

Six key Scottish species get woodland aid


A programme has been launched to help six key species flourish in woodlands across Scotland, reports the BBC’s Giancarlo Rinaldi.

Forestry Commission Scotland’s new biodiversity plan aims to create “stronger, more adaptable ecosystems”.

It identifies the capercaillie, black grouse, red squirrel, pearl-bordered fritillary, chequered skipper butterfly and juniper as important species.

Scottish Environment Minister Mike Russell launched the plan at the Carrick Forest in Dumfries and Galloway.

He said Scotland’s forests had a key part to play in protecting endangered species.

The criteria for selecting the six species as priorities include:

  • All declining and/or threatened but still widely distributed
  • Scotland holds a large proportion of the UK population
  • Forestry is important to their habitats
  • Managing of these species should have wider biodiversity benefits

“Woodlands – and the open spaces within them – have a vital contribution to make towards conserving Scotland’s threatened habitats and species,” Mr Russell is reported as saying.

“We are very fortunate in Scotland to enjoy a wealth of biodiversity that is for the most part robust and healthy.

“However, some elements are extremely fragile and making sure that they thrive will require some large-scale thinking and landscape scale vision – both of which are forestry sector strengths.”

Source: BBC News website

Date: 21/08/2008

Australian Greens call for end to native forest felling


The Australian Green Party is trying to gather support for their new policy to end the felling of all native forests, national broadcaster ABC reports.

The party has announced it wants the logging of native forests to end, and for timber to be sourced from tree plantations.

Green MP Paul Llewellyn says the party will allocate preferences in the coming state election to whichever major party supports their stance.

“Clearly the Greens are a rising force across Australia,” he is quoted as saying.

“In the Northern Territory we saw the Greens get 15% of the vote.

“We do determine which government goes into power by our preferences and native forest logging is going to be one of the important considerations in our decision about who to support.

“I do think that there is a unified voice across the conservation movement that native forest logging must stop and that we must make a complete transfer to plantations and farmed forestry.

“Our forefathers were preparing us for this by planting many thousands of hectares of pine and blue gum plantations.”

Source: ABC Online

Date: 14/08/2008

Half of Amazon’s trees could be lost forever


New roads, agriculture, logging and mining are claiming an increasingly large area of once pristine Amazon forest, observe an international team of researchers.

Writing in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they assessed how accurate the extinction rate of tree species in the South American biodiversity hotspot.

Using projections in the UN’s Millennium Ecosystems Assessment as the bench mark, the scientists estimated the number, abundance and range of the region’s trees to compile optimistic and non-optimistic scenarios.

Within the Brazilian portion of the Amazon Basin, they calculated that there were 11,210 tree species with a trunk diameter (at breast height) of more than 10cm.

Of these, 3,248 had populations of more than one million specimens. The team said that under both scenarios would persist in the future.

However, at the rare end of the abundance spectrum, the researchers suggested that there were about 5,308 species with fewer than 10,000 trees remaining.

Under the non-optimistic scenario, about half of these species were likely to go extinct.

Even under the optimistic scenario, more than a third faced extinction, with about 37% being lost forever.

The team said that many of the less abundant species had small ranges and were very vulnerable to habitat loss.

Looking at all tree species, the scientists warned that the rate of extinction was forecast to be 33% under the non-optimistic scenario.

Even under the optimistic scenario, they warned that the extinction rate would result in a fifth of the trees in the Brazilian Basin disappearing.

Source: PNAS

Date: 11/08/2008

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

%d bloggers like this: