Climate drives Lebanon’s cedars up the mountains

Environmentalists are concerned that climate change could affect Lebanon’s emblematic cedar trees, writes Bethany Bell on the BBC News website.

Cedar forests once covered the mountains of Lebanon. But the trees’ wood and resin have been prized since the days of the Ancient Egyptians.

Over the centuries, the trees (Cedrus libani) have been cut down by everyone from the Phoenicians to the Ottomans to the modern Lebanese themselves.

These days most of Lebanon’s cedars are protected, but now there is concern that the trees face a new threat.

A quarter of Lebanon’s cedars are found in the Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve, in the mountains south-east of Beirut.

Its scientific co-ordinator, Nizar Hani, says global warming could affect the growth of new trees:

“The impact of climate change on the cedar forests of Lebanon will be on natural regeneration because we will have a lack of snow.

“Secondly, there could be an increase of diseases and insect infections because of warmer temperatures.”

The cedar’s natural range is now 1,200-1,800 metres (4,000-6,000 feet) above sea level.

Mr Hani says a warmer climate would mean the trees could only survive at higher altitudes.

“Things could be difficult because the highest point on this mountain is 2,000 metres above sea level, so the cedar forests in Lebanon could disappear,” he warns.

But he stresses these are just predictions:

“Till now, we have healthy cedar forests, especially here in the Shouf Cedar Nature Reserve.”

The reserve is attempting to take action to limit the impact of rising temperatures.

Nizar Hani says isolated populations of trees will be more affected by climate change, so increasing the area of the cedar forests could help.

“We are trying to plant new cedar forests – we have a project to plant 100,000 seedlings.”

Source: BBC News website

Date: 28/08/2008

UK woodland birds ‘in decline’

The latest Breeding Bird Survey for the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), in partnership with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, has highlighted a significant decline in woodland bird species, writes the blog.

It says that the annual survey has revealed numbers down by more than 50% in several species, the worst hit being the willow tit down by 77%.

The reason for the decline is not obvious, the blog adds.

“It isn’t due to loss of habitat – there is more woodland in the UK today than there has ever been, and, on the whole, modern woodland management is more sympathetic to environmental concerns.

“The Farm Woodland Scheme and Farm Woodland Premium Scheme have also encouraged the planting of small woodlands.”

It suggests the fall in breeding woodland bird species may be the result of a change to the composition and structure of the UK’s woodlands.

“Traditional methods of management such as coppicing provide a perfect habitat for warblers and nightingales, for instance,” reports.

“The coppicing process whereby the wood is regularly cut back creates open woodland with plenty of undergrowth for nesting. Where coppice is left to grow unchecked, eventually the canopy closes and the undergrowth is shaded out.

“Mature woodland with a closed canopy supports tree-dwelling birds such as the woodpecker, but offers a less diverse selection of species overall.”

The blog highlights a possible connection between the fall in bird numbers and the growing population of deer: “Many woodland species like the woodland edges and open areas where there is shrubby, low-level cover.

“An explosion in the number of deer in the UK has had a noticeable impact on just this sort of habitat through grazing at the herb and low shrub level. It is quite likely that this is making a serious impact on woodland bird numbers.”

Migration has also been suggested as a factor.

Several British woodland birds, such as the wood warbler, are annual summer visitors that overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been suggested that drought in that region may be having an effect.

Citing studies in the Netherlands, the blog post by Catherine also suggested that reduction of habitat quality through traffic noise from nearby roads could have significantly affected local woodland bird populations.


Date: 22/08/2008

UN talks focus on deforestation

The latest round of UN climate talks in Ghana are making progress on ways to help developing nations slow deforestation, reports Alister Doyle, Reuter’s environment correspondent.

He added that delegates said the talks had also eased disputes over use of greenhouse gas targets for industrial sectors.

“It’s moving pretty well now,” Yvo de Boer, head of the UN climate secretariat, told reporters at the week-long talks.

The meeting in Accra is being held to develop a road-map for a new global climate agreement to replace the current Kyoto Protocol, which expires in 2012.

“We’re getting beyond some of the rhetoric,” he said of the 160-nation meeting among about 1,500 delegates.

“People are beginning to understand each other better.”

Accra is focusing largely on ways to encourage tropical developing nations to slow the rate of deforestation and debating whether industries such as steel, aluminium or cement should have international benchmarks for efficiency.

“The Accra meeting has been very successful so far,” said Luiz Figueiredo Machado, a Brazilian expert chairing talks on new ways for countries ranging from the United States to China to curb emissions.

Accra is not meant to end with any firm agreements.

Many delegates left the last session, in Germany in June, saying the talks were lagging in an assault on climate change that could drive more species to extinction, bring more desertification, floods, heatwaves and rising seas.

Source: Reuters

Date: 25/08/2008

Climate change ‘killing California’s trees’

Warmer temperatures and longer dry spells have killed thousands of trees and shrubs in a Southern California mountain range, US research shows.

A study by scientists at the University of California, Irvine also found that the shift in climate had pushed the plants’ habitat an average of 65 metres (213ft) up the mountain over the past 30 years.

A Science Daily report said the study showed that white fir and Jeffrey pine trees died at the lower altitudes of their growth range in the Santa Rosa Mountains, from 1,950 metres to as high as 2,195 metres (6,400 to 7,200ft).

It also found that California lilacs had died out between 1,220 to 1,460 metres (4,000 to 4,800ft).

The researchers also showed that almost all of the plants examined in the study had crept up the mountain by a similar distance, countering the belief that slower-growing trees would move more slowly than faster-growing grasses and wildflowers.

This study, the researchers said, was the first to show directly the impact of climate change on a mountainous ecosystem by physically studying the location of plants.

They added that it offered an insight into what could occur globally if the Earth’s temperature continued to rise.

The finding also had implications for forest management, the team reported, as it ruled out air pollution and fire suppression as main causes of plant death.

“Plants are dying out at the bottom of their ranges, and at the tops of their ranges they seem to be growing in and doing much better,” said lead author Anne Kelly, lead and a graduate student from the university’s Department of Earth System Science.

“The only thing that could explain this happening across the entire face of the mountain would be a change in the local climate.”

The study was published in the online section of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Source: Science Daily

Date: 15/08/2008

Trees ‘can cut emissions from poultry farms’

Planting just three rows of trees around poultry farms can cut nuisance emissions of dust, ammonia, and odours from poultry houses and help reduce complaints from neighbouring properties, US researchers suggest.

A Science Daily article quotes George Malone from the University of Delaware as saying the tree barrier can cut some of the emissions by almost a half.

Dr Malone presented his findings at the annual conference of the American Chemical Society (ACS).

The team of researchers said planting vegetation could reduce ammonia and particulates that may degrade surrounding air and water quality.

“We were aware of the concerns locally,” said Malone. “We looked at what we could do to address them and the whole area of air quality as it relates to the emission of ammonia from poultry houses.”

In response, they proposed planting trees to serve as a vegetative filter that could capture emissions from family-run farms, which can house an average of 75,000 chickens.

In their six-year study, Dr Malone and his team found that a three-row plot of trees of various species and sizes reduced total dust by 56% percent, ammonia by 53%, and odour levels were cut by about 18%.

However, Dr Malone added that certain tree species were more effective as barriers than others.

“We’ve certainly been on a learning curve since 2001 about the different plant materials suitable for this practice,” he said.

“We typically recommend the first row nearest the fans to be either a deciduous tree or a tree with a waxy leaf surface and the other two rows be an evergreen.

“It’s very important to realise there are a number of criteria that you use in tree selection and planting design. What works for our soil types and climate on the Delmarva Peninsula may not be suitable for other locations.”

The living filter system also has other benefits, the University of Delaware researcher noted.

For instance, it conserves energy by increasing shade and cooling in the summer and acts as a buffer to reduce heating costs in the winter.

Not only do trees enhance air quality, they also improve the water quality around poultry farms because they can filter pollutants from soil and groundwater.

Source: Science Daily

Date: 22/08/2008

Yew cuttings help cancer research

An operation is under way to prune the yew hedges at an estate in Wales, and help the fight against cancer at the same time, the BBC News website reports.

The annual task at Chirk Castle takes up to eight weeks to finish, and results in about three tonnes of clippings.

They are then bought by a company which transports them to be processed into chemotherapy drugs.

The castle’s head gardener, David Lock, said it was “brilliant” to think they were helping develop anti-cancer drugs.

The drugs docetaxel and paclitaxel are developed from yew trees.

Both drugs can also be made synthetically, but yew needles are still collected and used across Britain.

At Chirk, they are bought and collected by Doncaster-based Friendship Estates, which claims they are used as the raw material for anti-cancer drugs, particularly breast and ovarian cancers.

The company’s website said clippings should be one year’s growth, because the required chemical is concentrated in greener areas of the plant.

The statuesque hedges, which line the main gardens and are dotted throughout 11 acres of grounds, were planted in 1872.

The castle, built by Edward I, is more than 700 years old and is surrounded by 500 acres of parkland.

Debbie Coats, clinical information manager at Cancer Research UK, said: “There are two common chemotherapy drugs developed from Yew trees.

“One of them, docetaxel (Taxotere), first made from the needles of the European yew. The other, paclitaxel (Taxol) and was made from the bark of the Pacific yew.

“These are used to treat some breast, prostate and ovarian cancers. Both drugs are manufactured in the lab but the needles are collected and sold to the drug industry for this purpose.”

Source: BBC News website

Date: 18/08/2008

Six key Scottish species get woodland aid

A programme has been launched to help six key species flourish in woodlands across Scotland, reports the BBC’s Giancarlo Rinaldi.

Forestry Commission Scotland’s new biodiversity plan aims to create “stronger, more adaptable ecosystems”.

It identifies the capercaillie, black grouse, red squirrel, pearl-bordered fritillary, chequered skipper butterfly and juniper as important species.

Scottish Environment Minister Mike Russell launched the plan at the Carrick Forest in Dumfries and Galloway.

He said Scotland’s forests had a key part to play in protecting endangered species.

The criteria for selecting the six species as priorities include:

  • All declining and/or threatened but still widely distributed
  • Scotland holds a large proportion of the UK population
  • Forestry is important to their habitats
  • Managing of these species should have wider biodiversity benefits

“Woodlands – and the open spaces within them – have a vital contribution to make towards conserving Scotland’s threatened habitats and species,” Mr Russell is reported as saying.

“We are very fortunate in Scotland to enjoy a wealth of biodiversity that is for the most part robust and healthy.

“However, some elements are extremely fragile and making sure that they thrive will require some large-scale thinking and landscape scale vision – both of which are forestry sector strengths.”

Source: BBC News website

Date: 21/08/2008

Popular palm belongs to new genus, say scientists

A Caribbean palm, popular in southern Florida, known as the Keys thatch palm, has been identified as belonging to a new genus, the UK’s Guardian newspaper reports.

The palm, previously known as Thrinax morrisii, is now classified as Leucothrinax morrisii – the only species in the new genus.

US researchers moved the palm to its new classification after analysing its DNA.

Source: Guardian newspaper

Date: 20/08/2008

UK research centre to host European forestry climate hub

A UK research centre is set to become the European hub for an ambitious global research programme into the impacts of climate change on forests, the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) has announced.

In a press release, the CEH said its Wytham Woods centre, near Oxford in south-east England, will base environment charity Earthwatch’s Europe Regional Climate Centre.

Earthwatch, an environmental charity, has announced the opening of its Europe Regional Climate Centre as part of the HSBC Climate Partnership.

The centre, funded by the Hong Kong-based bank HSBC’s Cimate Partnership, will undertake a five-year climate change and forestry research programme.

The scheme is a partnership between Earthwatch, CEH and two local partner groups: Oxford University’s Environmental Change Institute (ECI) and its Wildlife and Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU).

The centre’s researchers will examine numerous aspects of forest ecology; from the flow of carbon within woodlands, to the response of small mammals and insects to changes in weather patterns.

Over the five years, the team is expected to complete 40,000 hours of fieldwork, which CEH says is equivalent to 21 years work for a single scientist.

The new centre is one of five throughout the world. The others are located in Brazil, India, China and North America.

Source: CEH press release

Date: 18/08/2008

Australian Greens call for end to native forest felling

The Australian Green Party is trying to gather support for their new policy to end the felling of all native forests, national broadcaster ABC reports.

The party has announced it wants the logging of native forests to end, and for timber to be sourced from tree plantations.

Green MP Paul Llewellyn says the party will allocate preferences in the coming state election to whichever major party supports their stance.

“Clearly the Greens are a rising force across Australia,” he is quoted as saying.

“In the Northern Territory we saw the Greens get 15% of the vote.

“We do determine which government goes into power by our preferences and native forest logging is going to be one of the important considerations in our decision about who to support.

“I do think that there is a unified voice across the conservation movement that native forest logging must stop and that we must make a complete transfer to plantations and farmed forestry.

“Our forefathers were preparing us for this by planting many thousands of hectares of pine and blue gum plantations.”

Source: ABC Online

Date: 14/08/2008

Palm oil pressures ‘threaten Borneo’s forests’

The head of a Malaysian environment group says the plundering of forest resources on Borneo has become so widespread that even protected forests and forest reserves are not spared, reports The Star newspaper

Sahabat Alam Malaysia (SAM) president S M Mohamed Idris said this was in addition to land clearing insecondary forests or native customary rights land in Sarawak, one of the two Malaysian states on Borneo.

These protected forests and forests reserves are being blatantly encroached on and cleared of timber so oil palm plantations and pulpwood estates can be developed, he said.

Mohamed Idris added that SAM recently discovered that the Sarawak Forests Department had licensed out some 2.8 million hectares of forested land to 40 plantation concessions.

This meant at least 23% of Sarawak’s land mass was now under department concessions for plantations, he said.

He added that information from environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports on the 40 concessions showed many of them were within protected forests and forest reserves.

He urged the state government to be more transparent in its land development policies.

Source: The Malaysian Star

Date: 16/08/2008

Investor creates first ‘tropical biodiversity credits’

An Australian investment company has launched what it describes as the first tropical biodiversity credit scheme, reports.

New Forests, a Sydney-based firm, has established the Malua Wildlife Habitat Conservation Bank in Malaysia as an attempt to raise funds for rainforest conservation.

The “Malua BioBank” will use an investment from a private equity fund to restore and protect 34,000 hectares (80,000 acres) of formerly logged forest.

The area will seve as a buffer between biological-rich forest reserve and oil palm plantations.

The credit scheme will generate “Biodiversity Conservation Certificates”, which wil be sold to bankroll a perpetual conservation trust and produce a return on investment for the Sabah Government and the private equity fund.


Date: 13/08/2008

Minister: Brazil’s deforestation ‘not on increase’

This year’s rate of deforestation in Brazil’s Amazon rainforest will be comparable with 2007, the nation’s environment minister is reported as saying. reports Carlos Minc as being more optimistic than earlier this year, when he forecast the highest level of felling of trees since 2004.

In April, Mr Minc had estimated that up to 15,000 square kilometres (sq km) of forest would be lost, an increase from the 11,224 sq km lost in 2007. quotes him as now saying that the figure will likely be around 12,000 sq km for 2008.

The minister’s comments apparently come after harsh criticism from some of the country’s largest agroindustrial firms which said that government satellite data was overestimating deforestation.

Cattle ranching is the largest driver of rainforest destruction in the Brazilian Amazon, although expansion of giant soy farms is increasingly an incentive to clear forest for new pasture.


Date: 15/08/2008

CO2 ‘delays autumnal leaf fall’

Increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is extending trees’ growing season, say scientists.

However, as reported in the blog Science Centric, the news had been welcomed by the forestry sector.

Writing in the journal Global Change Biology, Professor David Karnosky from Michigan Technological University, US, led an international team of researchers that suggested that the lengthening of the growing season would make forests more productive because they would absorb more carbon before shedding their leaves.

The researchers from the US and Europe collected and analysed two years’ data of what they called “autumnal senescence“, or the changing of colours and falling of leaves, which was triggered by declining photosynthesis.

They found that the forests on both continents stayed greener longer as CO2 levels rose, independent of temperature changes.

However, they added that the experiments were too brief to indicate how mature forests may be impacted over time. Professor Karnosky also said that other factors, such as increasing levels of low-level ozone, could limit the beneficial effects of elevated carbon dioxide levels.

The blog said the research was another example of an expanding body of scientific evidence that global climate change was affecting the world’s forests.

Science Centric added that the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on tree growth had been documented before, however, this report had challenged the prevailing view among scientists that other factors, such as temperature and length of day, were the primary elements influencing autumnal senescence.

Source: Science Centric blog

Date: 16/08/2008

Source: Michigan Technological University

Indonesian province imposes deforestation ban

A province on the Indonesian island of Sumatra has pledged to stop destruction of its forests and peatlands in an effort to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation by 50% by 2009, reports.

Riau’s governor announced the temporary ban, which will remain in place until signed into law, at a ceremony in the province’s capital Pekanbaru.

“The moratorium is an important first step and an opportunity for the local government, forest communities and other stakeholders to improve forest governance,” says Arief Wicaksono, Greenpeace Southeast Asia’s Political Advisor.

Curbing deforestation means the province will scale back plans to triple the area of land under oil palm cultivation.

Oil palm, which is used in the production of palm oil, is currently the largest driver of forest clearing in the province.

A study released in February estimated that deforestation of 4.2 million hectares of tropical forest and peat swamp in Riau over the past 25 years has generated 3.7 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide emissions.


Date: 15/08/2008

Thai queen urges nation to save forests

The Queen of Thailand has urged the nation to conserve its forests and water supplies, the Bangkok Post reports.

She used her birthday address on Tuesday to voice her concerns about the country’s dwindling water resources.

“I have read foreign publications and learned that in the next 15 years fresh water will be scarce,” she told a gathering of government ministers, dignitaries and members of the public.

“I am worried that our country lacks large fresh water resources – there are only forests,” the Thai royal added.

“Forests are where water is collected uderground; forests will soak up rainwater which will otherwise flow to the seas – they are a good source of water.”

The queen acknowledged that future water needs could be met by desalination plants, but warned that Thailand was unlikely to to be able to afford the technology on a scale to meet all of the nation’s water needed.

Source: The Bangkok Post

Date: 13/08/2008

US judge overturns wilderness ‘roadless rule’

A US federal judge has overturned a ban on constructing new roads in nearly a third of the US’s national forests, the AP news agency reports.

District Judge Clarence Brimmer issued a permanent injunction against the so-called “roadless rule“, introduced back in 2001 by the Clinton administration, saying it breached the National Environmental Policy Act and Wilderness Act.

The 2001 rule prohibted logging, mining and other developing on 58.5 million acres in 38 states and Puerto Rico.

Judge Brimmer, commenting on the Clinton-era ruling, said: “The Forest Service, in an attempt to bolster an outgoing president’s environmental legacy, rammed through an environmental agenda that itself violates the country’s well-established environmental laws.”

In 2005, the Bush administration replaced it with a procedure that required state governors to petition the US federal government to protect national forests in their states.

However, in 2006, another US District Judge, Elizabeth Laporte in San Francisco, reinstated the 2001 ruling, which led to Wyoming to lodge its complaint.

After Judge Brimmer’s decision, Wyoming Attorney General Bruce Salzburg welcomed the judgement, saying the “roadless rule” jeopardised the well-being of national forests because it was necessary to gain access to deal with beetle infestations and forest fires.

Environmental groups have vowed to challenge the latest ruling, as the ongoing legal battle looks set to continue.

A spokesman for the Wilderness Society said the 2001 position had not changed: “It is not in anyway overturned or compromised by Judge Brimmer’s decision in Wyoming.

“What it does do is create two conflicting court decisions in different federal courts, different states; both issuing decisions with nationwide impacts.”

Source: AP

Date: 13/08/2008

Water’s the limit for Douglas firs

Scientists are betting that you will never find a Douglas fir taller than 138 metres.

Writing in the scientific journal Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of researchers found that there was a limit on how high the giant trees were able to pull water up its truck to supply its upper branches.

As the firs reached their physical limit, the upper foliage experienced “drought stress”, struggled to enough water and died back, they explained.

“The trees are moving water purely as a result of physics, ” co-author Barb Lachenbruch, a professor of wood science at Oregon State University, told BBC News.

“The wood has to be designed to be safe at the top of the trees, which means preventing air bubbles getting into the columns that transport the water.”

Tall trees face a greater risk from air bubbles blocking their water supply, known as xylem embolism, because the tension in the columns increases with height as a result of conflicting forces such as gravity.

“If you had a straw that was three feet long and sucked up water before attaching it to the bottom of your tongue, your tongue would be pulled into the straw solely because of the weight of the water in the straw,” Professor Lachenbruch told environment reporter Mark Kinver.

“If you do that with a 300-foot column of water, it would pull incredibly hard; that’s what the force is inside the trees’ cell walls, and that’s why air bubbles can get in.”

The team found that the cellular structure of the wood changed as the height increased in order to prevent air bubbles entering the wood.

“As tree height increases,” they wrote, “the structural modifications needed to satisfy safety requirements eventually will reduce water transport virtually to zero.”

The firs’ wood is mainly made up from dead cells called “tracheids”, which have pits on their sides that act as valves, allowing water to pass from one cell to the next.

The team found that the cells’ pits became increasingly smaller in relation to an increase in height, resulting in less water being transported to the upper reaches of the trunk and branches.

The point where the water supply became non-existent determined the maximum height of the tree, they added.

Professor Lachenbruch said the team calculated this point as being 138m, but added that it could be between 131m and 145m once a margin of error was taken into account.

She observed: “I think it is really remarkable that wood cells, which are about the size of an eyelash but a little bit fatter, with holes on the side can tell us something about how tall a tree can get.”

Source: PNAS/BBC News website

Date: 11/08/2008

Half of Amazon’s trees could be lost forever

New roads, agriculture, logging and mining are claiming an increasingly large area of once pristine Amazon forest, observe an international team of researchers.

Writing in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they assessed how accurate the extinction rate of tree species in the South American biodiversity hotspot.

Using projections in the UN’s Millennium Ecosystems Assessment as the bench mark, the scientists estimated the number, abundance and range of the region’s trees to compile optimistic and non-optimistic scenarios.

Within the Brazilian portion of the Amazon Basin, they calculated that there were 11,210 tree species with a trunk diameter (at breast height) of more than 10cm.

Of these, 3,248 had populations of more than one million specimens. The team said that under both scenarios would persist in the future.

However, at the rare end of the abundance spectrum, the researchers suggested that there were about 5,308 species with fewer than 10,000 trees remaining.

Under the non-optimistic scenario, about half of these species were likely to go extinct.

Even under the optimistic scenario, more than a third faced extinction, with about 37% being lost forever.

The team said that many of the less abundant species had small ranges and were very vulnerable to habitat loss.

Looking at all tree species, the scientists warned that the rate of extinction was forecast to be 33% under the non-optimistic scenario.

Even under the optimistic scenario, they warned that the extinction rate would result in a fifth of the trees in the Brazilian Basin disappearing.

Source: PNAS

Date: 11/08/2008

Saving forests is ‘cost-effective carbon cutter’

While afforestation is allowed under the Kyoto Protocol as a way to offset carbon emissions, avoiding deforestation is not, explains environmentalresearchweb.

The article by Lynn Dicks, a contributing editor for the website, reports that a study by a team of international researchers argue that leaving trees standing should feature in the UN’s global climate agreement.

They state that retaining existing forests is more beneficial for biodiversity and other ecosystem services than planting new trees.

A mechanism developed by the World Bank that includes avoided deforestation, known as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD), will be considered at the key UN climate summit in 2009, which is being held in Copenhagen.

The findings by the researchers will add weight to the REDD proposals.

By using models of global land use, the study showed that leaving trees standing compared favourably in economic terms to other emission reduction options.

If the cost of carbon within trading schemes was £10 per tonne, the researchers showed that avoided deforestation would reduce emissions by 1.6-4.3 gigatonnes each year over a 25-year period.

To put it in context, Ms Dicks said the latest assessment suggests emissions need to fall by 3.5 gigatonnes each year to stabilise CO2 levels in the atmosphere at 550 parts per million (ppm).

The researchers said that the cost to nations of not cutting down trees (measured as loss of income from the land) would be relatively low (10% reduction in deforestation would cost £1-£2.50 per tonne of carbon dioxide).

“These are well within the range of costs for other climate change policy options,” says Brent Sohngen, a researcher from Ohio State University and one of the report’s authors.

The findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Source: environmentalresearchweb

Date: 08/08/2008


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